State Literacy Programs
Assessment Component
Last Updated: 5/15/2002

StateProgramAssessment Component
AlabamaAlabama Reading Initiative
  • Students in grades K-2 take the Alabama Diagnostic Reading Assessments at the beginning of each academic year to ascertain the child's readiness for that grade level, as well as to serve as a starting point for monitoring the student's progress in reading over the school year.

ArizonaArizona Research-Based Phonics Instruction
  • School districts with fewer than 600 pupils are exempt from this section if the district "is advancing at least 1.2 academic years in a calendar year as measured by the statewide nationally standardized norm-referenced achievement test..."
    As of April 30, 2002, this test was the Stanford 9, which is administered annually to students in grades 2-9.

ArkansasArkansas Smart Start
  • Public schools must use "informal assessments linked to the Arkansas frameworks" to diagnose reading/math difficulties in students in grades K-1. Students in grades 2-4 who score below proficient in "reading and writing literacy or mathematics" shall likewise receive remediation. Testing is to be aligned with classroom teaching and must be performance-based.

CaliforniaCalifornia Comprehensive Reading Leadership Program Act of 1996
  • Program designs and materials must address how reading instruction based on assessment and evaluation will be provided.

CaliforniaCalifornia Elementary School Intensive Reading Program
  • Lessons presented as part of this program must include ongoing diagnostic techniques that inform teaching and assessment.

CaliforniaCalifornia High School English Professional Development Institutes
  • Priority in selecting institute participants is given to, among others, schools whose scores on the English language arts section of the STAR assessment are at or below the 40th percentile.

CaliforniaCalifornia Professional Development Institutes
  • Professional development is to be provided in "ongoing diagnostic techniques that inform teaching and assessment ... Instruction provided pursuant to this section shall acquaint teachers with the value in the diagnostic nature of standardized tests." (statute).

CaliforniaCalifornia Reading Initiative
  • The Standardized Testing and Reporting Program (STAR), enacted in 1997 (section 60640), requires districts to annually administer to students in grades 2-11 the state-board selected assessment, as well as the standards-based achievement test stipulated in section 60642.5

ColoradoColorado Basic Literacy Act
  • The "reading readiness or literacy and reading comprehension level" of every K-3 student must be assessed annually using a state-board-approved instrument or the reading portion of the CSAP (the Colorado Student Assessment Program, statewide test linked to accountability measures). Assessments to test students' reading levels must be approved by the state board only "after consulation with the state standards and assessments development and implementation council" established in Section 22-7-404.

ColoradoColorado Reading Excellence Act Partnership
  • Students in the 3rd grade will be assessed using the Colorado State Assessment Program (CSAP).

ColoradoColorado Summer School Grant Program
  • Participants in program are students entering 4th and 5th grades who scored at the unsatisfactory proficiency level on the reading portion of the CSAP, the state assessment instrument. Students must be reassessed in reading and writing at the end of the summer program.

ColoradoColorado Teacher Development Grant Program
  • Grant applications for professional development funds must present the school's improvement goals, which must "include a measurable increase in student learning in the [area] of reading..."

ConnecticutConnecticut Early Reading Success
  • Local and regional plans must specify the process to be used to assess which students are at risk of being unable to read by the end of 1st grade. The department of education must offer districts technical support on ways to assess "students who are at risk of failing to read by the end of 1st grade..."

District of ColumbiaDistrict of Columbia Targeted Assistance Schools Program
  • Schools are chosen for participation on basis of assessment results. Targeted elementary schools were given two years to improve scores at least 10% on SAT-9 in April 1998.

FloridaFlorida Reading Initiative
  • During professional development, teachers are shown how to use informal, as well as formal, assessments to provide sustained monitoring of student progress. In 2001-02 (year one of the program), the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, a national norm-referenced test, was administered to participating students during the second week of school and again in the 32nd week of school.

FloridaJust Read, Florida!
  • The department report addresses the significant role of assessments in identifying and monitoring students with reading difficulties.
    Identifying students with problems Assessing the specific nature of those problems Evaluating the effectiveness of instruction and providing guidance for revising instruction.

GeorgiaGeorgia Assessment and Intervention
  • To identify students eligible for early intervention program participation, schools may use student scores on assessments including the 1st-grade readiness test and the state criterion-referenced assessment.
    Criterion-referenced reading assessment to serve as basis of retention of students in grades 3, 5 and 8 is established in statutes 20-2-281.

  • Students in grades 9-12 who score at or below the 25th percentile on a certain assessment qualify for the remedial education program.

  • Students will be tested using the state criterion-referenced reading assessment in grades 3, 5 and 8. Those scoring below grade level will be retested and if they still score below grade level, they will be retained. Students who are retained will receive a plan for continuous assessment to monitor progress in reading.

GeorgiaGeorgia Reading Challenge
  • Students participating in the program must take the Basic Literacy Test, unless instructional needs have been outlined by the child's classroom teacher. Initially, program guidelines demanded two reading assessments--the Iowa test and "periodic informal pretest and post-test assessments" (first-year report), but the Iowa test was later removed from the program for various reasons.

GeorgiaGeorgia Reading First
  • The Basic Literacy Test (BLT) is administered to students in grades K-3 three times per year. The BLT assesses decoding skills, sight words and reading comprehension.

HawaiiHawaii Reading Excellence Grant
  • Schools receiving grants must explain how they will monitor students for reading improvement.

IdahoIdaho Child Literacy Act: Assessment
  • Legislation specifies which skills must be tested in kindergarten and grades 1-3. Although all students must be tested at least twice a year, "additional assessments may be administered for students in the lowest twenty-five percent (25%) of reading progress" (statute).

IdahoIdaho Child Literacy Act: Extended-Year Program
  • Assessments twice during the school year will indicate which students should participate in this program.

IdahoIdaho Comprehensive Literacy Plan
  • All students will be assessed for reading achievement annually. The department of education provides schools with a list of suggested assessment materials that includes both formal and informal tests and measures.

IdahoIdaho Reading Evaluations and Interventions
  • School proficiency levels are based on the results of the statewide spring reading assessment.

IllinoisIllinois Reading Improvement Block Grant Program
  • Applications for grant funds must include a proposed means of assessing participating students' reading improvement. Testing method may be the Illinois Standards Achievement Testing Program. District assessments must show student reading improvement in order to remain eligible for funding in third or following years of grants.

IllinoisIllinois Summer Bridges
  • Students will receive 90 hours of individualized summer instruction in reading and writing in small and large groups, as well as one-on-one sessions, on the basis of assessment scores from the beginning of the summer.

IndianaIndiana I-READ
  • Program participants shall be identified based on the results of a reading assessment test developed and administered by the department of education and given to each 3rd grade student enrolled in the public school system across the state during the month of September upon entering the 3rd grade.

IowaIowa Early Intervention Block Grant Program
  • K-3 students must take a diagnostic assessment at least twice annually to detect reading problems.

KansasKansas Basic Reading Skills Mastery Program
  • Student reading skills to be monitored to detect if students are adequately progressing toward basic reading skills mastery.

KentuckyKentucky Center for Middle School Academic Achievement
  • Professional development programs are to be aligned with "the Department of Education's core content for assessment" (156.555).

LouisianaLouisiana Quality Early Reading Initiative
  • The initiative is evaluated by means of "the state-level assessment system that identifies those schools and school systems which are meeting state standards of school accountability" (statute). Monies may go towards classroom assessment materials and state-required dyslexia screenings. "School systems may use start-up funds for the purpose of implementing the uniform assessment during the first 30 school days" (department).

MaineMaine - Center for Early Literacy
  • Every fall, individual and group assessments are administered. Individual data are applied to guide teaching, while group data provide the opportunity to observe progress over time and to obtain a picture of a group in general.

MaineMaine Center for Inquiry on Literacy (CIL)
  • The center provides information on research-based reading assessment practices.

MarylandMaryland Academic Intervention and Support Program
  • Students needing to participate in the intervention program are to be identified based on "performance on Maryland School Performance Assessment Program Tests [MSPAP], standardized tests, classroom tests, and any other criteria the State Board deems appropriate" (statute).

MarylandMaryland Minimum Reading Levels
  • "The local assessment of student progress" and the Maryland education accountability program determine whether a student "has not met either a minimum grade level competency or the minimum reading level as required by the State Board for the previous grade" (statute).

MarylandMaryland State Task Force on Reading
  • Preservice and professional development for elementary and secondary grades must include coursework in reading assessment; secondary-grades teachers must also complete coursework in data analysis. The task force recommends both informal, as well as formal reading assessment. It also issues "design principles" on assessment, which include continuous observation and documentation of students’ reading and writing behaviors.

MarylandMaryland Statewide Family Literacy Initiative
  • This initiative calls for the approval of family literacy performance indicators.

MassachusettsMassachusetts - Academic Support Services Program (ASSP)
  • Students are to be identified for program participation based on poor performance on the MCAS or, in the case of the Individual Tutoring in Reading program, on low performance on the grade 3 Iowa reading test.
    In the Individual Tutoring in Reading program, applying districts were required to state the assessment medium or method that would be applied to measure students' ongoing progress.

MassachusettsMassachusetts - BayState Readers Literacy Initiative
  • Funds may be used to purchase reading assessments.

MassachusettsMassachusetts - Community Partnerships for Children (CPC) Program
  • Guidelines for CPC-funded early childhood programs recommend an "assessment-based curriculum" (guide) and offer guidelines for the assessment of young children.
    According to the guide, "[Y]oung children's educational progress needs to be measured and documented by developmentally, linguistically, and culturally appropriate assessment tools. Observation-based assessment tools may include, but are not limited to: portfolio assessments, classroom observation measures, teacher report measures, parent report measures, individualized education program (IEP) team member reports, [and] therapist's or professional's reports."

MassachusettsMassachusetts - Elementary Schoolwide Literacy Program
  • The reading comprehension levels of students in grades 1 and 2 in participating schools must be tested in the spring and fall 2002, 2003 and spring 2004 using the Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA). Schools must examine each child's test results and report these to parents and the child's teacher for the next school year. The grant proposal must address what assessments the school will use at each grade level to gauge students' progress towards established goals.

MassachusettsMassachusetts - Spread the Word Program
  • Children are asked on the 4th-grade MCAS how many books they have at home. Schools to receive books are determined by the number of children with five or fewer books at home. Schools were formerly invited on the basis of low MCAS reading scores.

MichiganMichigan - TARGET/PLUS
  • Professional development opportunities must provide in-depth knowledge regarding ongoing assessment of students' progress and develop an indidualized education plan based on assessment data consistent with the "Michigan Literacy Progress Profile."

MichiganMichigan Literacy Achievement Program Grants
  • The program chosen by grant recipients must provide for ongoing assessment of the targeted students; progress, and develop individualized education plans based on the assessment.

MichiganReading Plan for Michigan
  • The Preschool-Grade Three Reading and Writing Portfolio component of the Reading Plan for Michigan is an assessment tool to remain with the child from grade to grade and from school to school. It is to include: "(1) A profile sheet that summarizes the child's performance on the assessment tools in the Michigan Literacy Progress Profile (MLPP); (2) Individual record sheets showing specific diagnostic information about the child's performance on each of the assessment tools in the Michigan Literacy Progress Profile; (3) Examples of work selected by the child to show his/her best performances; and (4) Artifacts selected by individual schools to be included as indicators of the child's literacy development." Teachers are trained in portfolio use at summer Regional Training Centers.

  • The Michigan Literacy Progress Profile (MLPP) is an assessment for teachers to administer to students in grades pre-K-3 three to four times a year. It includes milestone assessments for oral language, fluency, comprehension and writing, enabling skills assessments in six areas, including phonemic awareness, and a structure from which to determine what literacy interventions are needed.
    Statute 380.1280 requires all students in grades 1-5 to take a nationally recognized state superintendent-approved norm-referenced test each year. The Michigan Literacy Progress Profile may be used to fulfill this requirement for children in grades 1-3.

MinnesotaMinnesota - Reading Intervention
  • Each school district shall identify, before the end of 1st grade, the students who are at risk of not learning to read before the end of 2nd grade. The district must use a locally adopted assessment method.

MissouriMissouri Read to be Ready Program
  • Each school district must administer a reading assessment to each student within 45 days of the end of the 3rd-grade year. For those who are found to be reading below grade level, the district must develop a reading improvement plan which includes 30 hours of additional reading instruction or practice outside the regular school day during the 4th-grade year. This process is repeated until the student is found to be reading on grade level. Assessments must have a demonstrated effectiveness based on research.
    Mo. Rev. Stat. § 167.345 and § 167.346

NevadaNevada Reading Excellence Act Grant
  • Local reading improvement subgrants will be used to identify and use literacy assessment tools to inform classroom practice.

New MexicoNew Mexico Full-day Kindergarten Literacy Readiness Program
  • Teachers or instructional assistants under the guidance of teachers must administer age-appropriate, literacy-specific screening and assessment measures to participating students.
    N.M. Admin. Code tit. 6 § 30.5.12

New MexicoNew Mexico Reading Initiative
  • N.M. Stat. Ann. § 22-2-8.5 provides for statewide testing in reading and writing. Students in grades K-3 are assessed to determine problems in reading. The assessment is to provide a means of demonstrating continuous progress in reading and diagnostic information on phonics, phonemic awareness and comprehension.

New YorkNew York Reading for Results
  • Local education agencies receiving subgrants must describe how screening and diagnostic assessment will be used to inform classroom practice and to determine those students who are at risk of not meeting early literacy core competencies and the goals of Reading for Results.

North CarolinaComprehensive Reading Plan for North Carolina Public Schools
  • In 1999, the board began requiring all schools to administer reading and math assessments in kindergarten through 2nd grade that monitor student's achievement of the benchmarks in the state Standard Course of Study. The assessments must include "documented, ongoing, individualized assessments" throughout the year and a summative evaluation at the end of the year.

OhioOhio Literacy Initiative
  • Students will be assessed upon leaving the 3rd grade and entering the 4th grade to determine their reading ability. Those reading below grade level will be offered remediation services during the summer following 3rd grade.

  • The English Language Arts standards are aligned with a comprehensive assessment system.

OklahomaOklahoma Reading Sufficiency Act
  • The act requires that each K-3 student be assessed using multiple, ongoing assessments. Students found not to be reading at the appropriate grade level are provided a reading assessment plan, which includes a program of instruction in reading designed to bring the student's reading skills up to grade level.

  • The State Department of Education must provide each school district with a list of approved reading assessments to be used for initial identification of students at risk of reading failure and for periodic and post assessments. These assessments shall measure student acquisition of reading skills including, phonemic awareness, phonics, spelling, reading fluency and comprehension.

OregonOregon Early Success Reading Initiative
  • The initiative provides research-based assessment systems to administrators, teachers and the public in order to provide the decisionmaking and accountability information needed to monitor children's progress as they learn to read. It also provides for screening and continuously monitoring the reading progress of all children from kindergarten through the completion of the 3rd grade.

PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Read to Succeed
  • Grant recipients must identify the methods of ongoing assessment they will use in the program.

Rhode IslandRhode Island Literacy and Dropout Prevention Act
  • All school districts must screen all children prior to, or upon, their first entry to school to determine their educational readiness level. Screening shall focus on the literacy skills of reading, writing, speaking, listening and mathematics.

Rhode IslandRhode Island Reading Initiative/Reading Excellence Grant
  • Three-year plans developed by funded schools will include the documentation and assessment methods to be used to track each child's reading progress. Assessment measures will inform for classroom instruction, referrals to special education, tutorial assistance, enrollment in Summer Bridge reading programs, enrollment in any special school-based supports and parent discussions.

South DakotaSouth Dakota Advanced Reading Enhancement Approach (AREA)
  • The Developmental Reading Assessment Package (DRA) gives K-3 teachers a range of tools to help monitor changes in reading behaviors as they teach, as well as conduct periodic assessments for accountability. It is intended to guide teachers' ongoing observations of children's progress within a literature-based reading program.

TennesseeTennessee Governor's Reading Initiative
  • The state board of education must develop developmentally appropriate diagnostic methods for assessing and monitoring reading development and identifying students who are having difficulties.

TexasTexas Reading Initiative
  • The Texas Primary Reading Inventory (TPRI) is administered statewide to students in K-2 and provides a continuum on which to track each child's reading ability in four areas: print awareness, phonemic awareness, graphophonemic knowledge, oral reading ability and reading comprehension skills.

TexasTexas Ready to Read Grants
  • Schools receiving grants must use the funds for pre-reading skills assessment materials.

UtahUtah Reading/Literacy Legislation
  • The Utah Performance Assessment System for Students (U-PASS) in grades 1-10 is used to determine whether the student has mastered reading skills. U-PASS is comprised of seven major assessment programs, three of which are used to assess reading. If the student has not mastered basic skills, the school must provide remedial assistance to help the student attain reading proficiency appropriate to the student's age and ability.
    Utah Code Ann. § 53A-1-606 Laing, Steven O. and Carlsotn, Gary L. "Utah Performance Assessment System for Students: an explanation of the system. Utah State Office of Education. April 27, 2001.

UtahUtah Reads
  • Every kindergarten student may participate in an assessment of his/her emerging and early reading skills within the first two weeks of the school year. The kindergarten student's teacher may use the assessment in planning and developing an instructional program to meet the student's identified needs
    Utah Code Ann. § 53A-3-402.9: Assessment of emerging and early reading skills -- Resources provided by school districts.

VermontVermont Preventing Early School Failure; Reading Instruction
  • Using the Vermont Developmental Reading Assessment, teachers individually assess every 2nd grader in the state to determine the degree to which students are meeting standards related to reading accuracy and comprehension.

VermontVermont Reads
  • The Vermont Developmental Reading Assessment is a standards-based performance assessment, which is individually administered to every Vermont child at the end of 2nd grade. The assessment is designed so that it may be used both as a statewide accountability tool and as a teaching tool to inform classroom instruction.

VirginiaVirginia Early Intervention Reading Initiative
  • The initiative funds a statewide literacy screening instrument, PALS (Phonological Awareness and Literacy Screening) and a PALS Web site. The PALS Web site is designed as a teacher-friendly means of entering PALS scores. For teachers, the PALS site includes: (1) a section where teachers return their class scores to University of Virginia and receive an immediate summary report, (2) a page where principals and district representatives can receive summaries of their schools' PALS scores, and (3) over a hundred instructional suggestions based on PALS screening sections.

VirginiaVirginia Reads
  • The University of Virginia will develop evaluation instruments and indicators. The Reading Excellence Act projects will also be able to use results from the state's Phonological Awareness Literacy Screeing (PALS) test which assesses children's knowledge of the alphabetic code and phonological awareness.

WashingtonWashington Reading Corps
  • Students are evaluated with a pre- and post-test and compared to expected norms.

WyomingWyoming Reading Assessment and Remediation Act
  • Districts must design and administer a reading screening program for all 1st- and 2nd-grade students to identify those needing further specialized help. In addition, beginning in the 2002-03 school year, districts must annually report to the department progress in reaching a rate of 85% reading proficency among the student body. The report must include longitudinal data on students in grades 1-4 identified for intervention.

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