State Literacy Programs
Curriculum Component
Last Updated: 5/15/2002

StateProgramCurriculum Component
AlabamaAlabama Reading Initiative
  • The pedagogies emphasized by the program promote use of a "balanced approach" between whole-language and phonics reading instruction techniques.

ArizonaArizona Intensive Reading Instruction
  • Special reading instruction must be provided to students not performing at the 3rd-grade level until they are able to meet the standards.

ArizonaArizona Reading Curriculum Review Statute
  • A curriculum review must be conducted by the governing board of each school district that has 20% of students in grade 4 reading below the basic category. The board will then develop and adopt methods of best practices for teaching reading to be implemented the following school year. Reading instruction techniques may include Spalding, direct instruction, success for all, whole language, Reading Recovery and "other appropriate reading education techniques."

ArizonaArizona Research-Based Phonics Instruction
  • Reading curriculum for students in grades K-3 must use phonics-based approach.

ArkansasArkansas Smart Start
  • The program is in keeping with the curriculum framework developed by the Arkansas Department of Education. Training emphasizes "phonics, word-recognition practice and focused comprehension instruction" (SREB report).

CaliforniaCalifornia Comprehensive Reading Leadership Program Act of 1996
  • Reading leadership program designs and materials are to include explicit phonics instruction, as well as meeting other criteria. The program should build reading skills through the reading of high quality books.
    According to statute, programs are to "focus on systematically explicit phonics instruction, phonemic awareness, sound-symbol relationships, decoding, word-attack skills, spelling instruction, diagnosis of reading deficiencies, research on how children learn to read, research on how proficient readers read, the structure of the English language, relationships between reading, writing, and spelling, planning and delivery of appropriate reading instruction based on assessment and evaluation, and independent pupil reading of high quality books and the relationship of that reading to improved reading performance."

CaliforniaCalifornia Elementary School Intensive Reading Program
  • Lessons presented as part of this program must be research-based (section 53027), and must include (1) the study of organized, systematic, explicit skills, including phonemic awareness, direct, systematic explicit phonics and decoding skills; (2) a strong literature, language and comprehension component with a balance of oral and written language; and (3) early intervention techniques.

CaliforniaCalifornia High School English Professional Development Institutes
CaliforniaCalifornia Professional Development Institutes
  • "The institutes shall provide instruction in the teaching of reading in a manner consistent with the standard for a comprehensive reading instruction program that is research-based, ... and shall include all of the following components: (A) The study of organized, systematic, explicit skills including phonemic awareness, direct, systematic explicit phonics, and decoding skills. (B) A strong literature, language and comprehension component with a balance of oral and written language…. (D) Early intervention techniques. … (2) Instruction provided pursuant to this section shall be consistent with state-adopted academic content standards and with the curriculum framework on reading/language arts adopted by the state board of education" (statute).

CaliforniaCalifornia Reading Initiative
  • Sections 60350-60352 provide for funds to be appropriated to districts which must be spent on instructional materials which include, but are not necessarily limited to, phonemic awareness, systematic explicit phonics and spelling patterns, accompanied by reading material that provides practice in the lesson being taught." Five percent of monies received by a district may go toward purchase of independent reading materials for grades 1-4 for school or classroom libraries.

  • State curriculum framework presents a "balanced language arts program that combines systematic, explicit instruction in beginning and advanced reading skills with an emphasis on access to high-quality print and non-print, narrative and expository reading materials." (DOE Web site)

ColoradoColorado Basic Literacy Act
  • The department of education has created a "Continuum of Reading Services," which suggests a variety of approaches schools might offer to a struggling reader. Also proposes best practices in reading. Section 22-7-406 establishes a resource bank for teachers which includes "model programs of instruction..." Section 22-7-504 stipulates that the resource bank incorporate in these model programs of instruction "reading readiness, literacy and reading comprehension programs collected from school districts and organizations in the state and throughout the nation that have been proven to be successful. A school district may request technical assistance from the state board and the department of education in selecting and adapting a literacy program in the resource bank for use in the school district."
    1998 Colorado DOE report "Implementing the Colorado Basic Literacy Act":

ColoradoColorado Reading Excellence Act Partnership
  • Tutorial Assistance subgrants will provide tutoring to children who have difficulty reading, including mastering phonemic awareness, systematic phonics, fluency, and reading comprehension. This assistance will be based on scientifically based reading research and must be consistent with the reading program used by the child's school.

  • Schools must utilize a research-based reading curriculum that includes a mix of phonics instruction and quality literature.

ConnecticutConnecticut Early Reading Success
  • Local/regional plans must include "the specific instructional methods, strategies and activities that will be used to teach reading." Priority school districts must perform a needs assessment that examines whether any curriculum needs exist in the district.

FloridaFlorida - Reading Enhancement Grant Program
  • Funds may be spent on reading-related classroom materials and supplies.

FloridaFlorida Reading Initiative
  • Reading skills and strategies are balanced between phonics and whole-language approaches, and are aligned with reading instruction strategies recommended by the National Reading Panel.

FloridaJust Read, Florida!
  • The department's final report addresses the reading instruction methods used in Florida schools and advises schools to consult the Florida Reading Program standards when putting reading programs into place. The report likewise addresses reading intervention strategies districts and schools may use to assist struggling readers.

GeorgiaGeorgia Assessment and Intervention
  • Intervention activities may include, but are not limited to, class augmentation, pull-out or self-contained classes, and the Reading Recovery Program delivered by certified personnel. Students in grades 3, 5 and 8 scoring below grade level on the state reading assessment must be provided "accelerated, differentiated or additional instruction" in reading (20-2-283). Students who score below grade level in reading on the retest must be given "such accelerated, differentiated or additional instruction as needed to perform at grade level by the conclusion of the subsequent school year..."

GeorgiaGeorgia Reading Challenge
  • "All instructional materials are research-based and proven effective with students. Computers are available for student use at Reading Challenge sites and technology is used at most programs to remediate, reinforce, or enrich individuals' reading skills" (first-year evaluation report). Some programs opt to have organized lesson planning. According to the evaluation report, instructional practices are comprised of a blend of "direct instruction (individual and group), projects and extracurricular activities" (report).

GeorgiaGeorgia Reading First
  • Reading First schools use the basal reader books and other materials purchased with Reading First grant funds from the Reading First materials list available through the Georgia Department of Education.

HawaiiHawaii Reading Excellence Grant
  • Schools receiving grants must explain how they will implement a research-based schoolwide beginning reading model.

IdahoIdaho Child Literacy Act: Assessment
  • "It is legislative intent that curricular materials utilized by school districts for kindergarten through grade three (3) shall align with the "Idaho Comprehensive Literacy Plan" (statute).

IdahoIdaho Comprehensive Literacy Plan
  • Kindergarten through 3rd-grade curriculum should include oral language and listening skills; sound, symbol and structure awareness, comprehension; vocabulary, spelling; and phonics, decoding/word attack skills.

IdahoIdaho Reading Improvement Grants
  • General Reading Improvement grant monies are for K-6 Reading Recovery or other locally developed programs that increase reading skills for students.

IllinoisIllinois Reading Improvement Block Grant Program
  • Funds may be used to create short-term tutorial early reading intervention programs for students at risk of failing to learn to read, as well as support programs for students in grades 3-6 who need assistance in reading. Statute outlines necessary components of these tutorials. Funds may also be used to purchase classroom reading materials.

IllinoisIllinois Reads
  • Thirty-five thousand Illinois Reading Kits were distributed to PreK-2nd grade teachers and elementary principals in September 2000. These kits provide teachers and administratores with professional development and classroom resources for implementing standards-aligned reading instruction.

  • The Quality Counts initiative focuses on early child care and literacy. Quality Counts vans have been outfitted with reading readiness resources for use by at-home child care providers, as well as child care centers.

IllinoisIllinois Solid Foundation
  • The program helps teachers implement research-based homework policies, provides a reading-at-home course for parents of K-3 students and strengthens skills taught in the classroom by means of Reading School-Home Links, where children share in reading skill-building activities with their parents.

IllinoisIllinois Summer Bridges
  • Instruction provided through the program should foster "literacy-rich" classrooms with a wide variety of reading materials.

IndianaIndiana I-READ
  • The department is required to develop a sample curriculum for the additional reading instruction, incorporating strategies practiced and proven to be effective in the Reading Recovery and the early literacy initiative programs at Ohio State University.

  • Teachers must lead small group reading instruction for program participants. Groups consist of 3-5 students per teacher for 40 minutes of additional reading instruction per school day.

IndianaIndiana Phonics Initiatives
  • The early reading curriculum must include phonics components.

IowaIowa Early Intervention Block Grant Program
  • Phonemic awareness mentioned as skill K-3 students should be taught/tested on.

KansasKansas Basic Reading Skills Mastery Program
  • Students not sufficiently progressing toward basic reading skills mastery must be provided an intervention, which may be in the form of "a restructured school day, additional school days, summer school or individualized instruction."

KentuckyKentucky Center for Middle School Academic Achievement
  • Technical assistance on middle grades instruction and curriculum is to be provided to schools. The information clearinghouse provides information about research-based education models, as well as "the relationship between student achievement levels and curriculum content, curriculum structure and alignment with content, teacher training and teaching methods; develop and implement a research structure, in collaboration with the Department of Education, to evaluate the effectiveness of different middle school instructional models..."

KentuckyKentucky Collaborative Center for Literacy Development
  • Information about reading models is offered through the information clearinghouse; assistance in reading model selection and implementation is also offered teachers.

LouisianaLouisiana Quality Early Reading Initiative
  • Funds may be used to purchase classroom reading supplies and materials (but not textbooks or workbooks), including reading software that promote a "balanced approach" to reading instruction. Funds may also go toward extended-day or summer programs focused on reading instruction and led by a certified teacher.

MaineMaine - Center for Early Literacy
  • Reading Recovery must be provided to struggling readers in Literacy Collaborative schools. A variety of reading tasks are performed each day (including "read aloud, shared reading, guided and independent reading") (Literacy Collaborative Web page). In addition, the site states that a "commitment is made to acquire materials that support a rich literacy environment."

MaineMaine Center for Inquiry on Literacy (CIL)
  • The center is creating an early reading curriculum framework in keeping with the recently approved state standards. It likewise offers technical support in program development/evaluation, provides information on research-based reading pedagogical practice and reviews "research-based literacy texts" (CIL Web site). Professional development is also provided on implementation of "literacy initiatives such as Project Story Boost and The Early Literacy and Language Classroom Observation Tool (ELLCO)."

MaineMaine Read with ME
  • Each child receives a bag containing three books by Maine authors, a bookmark offering parents reading tips, a proposed reading list, along with other resources.

MarylandMaryland Academic Intervention and Support Program
  • District intervention plan submissions are to follow state-board-approved criteria. Such criteria may include: "(i) State-approved best practices for academic intervention; (ii) A catalog of promising state-approved practices that would qualify for a county board's implementation of academic intervention programs..." School materials are to be used during academic interventions.
    "Academic intervention programs" as defined in this statute may be held during the school day "provided there is no continual conflict with curriculum-based instruction;" and programs held before and after school, on weekends, on holidays, during vacations and during summer recess.

MarylandMaryland Learning Success Program
  • District plans must detail how funds will be spent towards provision of "supplies and materials related to changes in curriculum and instructional methods implemented to maximize the educational results of reduced class sizes" (statute).

MarylandMaryland Literacy Promotion Grants
  • Some funds are to be used to provide children with books during well-child visits in the health care setting.

MarylandMaryland Minimum Reading Levels
  • Students identified as reading below grade level may be provided with "an appropriate reading assistance program as part of his instructional program" as an alternative to retention in grade.

MarylandMaryland State Task Force on Reading
  • Most of the 12 elementary design principles, and many of the middle and high school design principles, relate to curriculum. These principles seek to ensure teachers possess a deep professional understanding of reading and learning to read.

MarylandMaryland Statewide Family Literacy Initiative
  • Chlidren are sent home with a School-Home Links Reading Kit, which enforces skills introduced in the classroom.

MassachusettsMassachusetts - Academic Support Services Program (ASSP)
  • Competitive Academic Support Services (CASS): "Programs must use innovative, research-based practices and supports designed to engage and instruct identified students" (RFP). Monies may be used to buy tutorial software. Project Success: Districts and the department consider the instructional models used in academic interventions funded through the program, so as to single out best practices.

MassachusettsMassachusetts - BayState Readers Literacy Initiative
  • Funds may be used to purchase books for school libraries and classrooms.

MassachusettsMassachusetts - Community Partnerships for Children (CPC) Program
  • CPC-participating agencies are required to provide high-quality early childhood education, including prereading skills and competencies. Guide presents curriculum standards for programs funded by CPC monies. Curricula used by CPC-funded programs must be aligned with the state pre-K curriculum frameworks. Program funds may pay for instructional materials.
    The state board has approved drafts of pre-K curriculum frameworks for English language arts.

MassachusettsMassachusetts - Elementary Schoolwide Literacy Program
  • Participating schools must "establish measurable reading and writing goals and benchmarks by grade level that reflect the standards of the Massachusetts English Language Arts Curriculum Framework and current research." Funds may be spent on classroom materials and supplies "needed to implement the Elementary Literacy Program" (RFP), but such expenditures may not exceed 15% of the grant total.
    School staff are to be trained "in the six dimensions of reading: (1) phonemic awareness (skills and knowledge to understand how phonemes, or speech sounds are connected to print); (2) systematic phonics; (3) fluency; (4) background information and vocabulary to foster reading comprehension; (5) development of appropriate active strategies to construct meaning from print; and (6) development and maintenance of a motivation to read" (RFP).

MassachusettsMassachusetts - Spring and Summer Content Institutes
  • Course content offered through the institutes is aligned with the state's curriculum frameworks. Many institutes present material across disciplines and apply education technology.

MassachusettsMassachusetts Early Literacy Intervention Grant
  • The curriculum and approach used to teach "at-risk" readers must be research-based with proven long-term results. Reading Recovery teacher leaders may be trained at regional training sites.

MichiganMichigan Literacy Achievement Program Grants
  • Programs chosen by grant recipients must be structured, research-based and validated, and have good evidence of success in assisting students who are struggling to learn to read.

MichiganReading Plan for Michigan
  • The Michigan Summer School Program is an intensive summer program based on identified "best practice" for children needing additional learning opportunities during the early elementary years.
    In summer 1999, 55 Michigan summer school programs were operating as an offshoot of the Model Summer School Program.

MinnesotaMinnesota - Reading Intervention
  • Students identified as at risk of reading failure will receive intervention, which may include attendance in summer school and intensified reading instruction that may require removing the student from the regular classroom for part of the school day.

MississippiMississippi Reading Reform Model
  • Teachers are to incorporate improved reading instructional practices into pre-K-3rd-grade classrooms by utilizing a balance of six dimensions of reading instruction (phonemic awareness, decoding, fluency, background knowledge and vocabulary, comprehension and motivation).

  • School districts must develop a plan which includes the utilization of research-based teaching methodologies or strategies for providing direct instruction in phonics, vocabulary and comprehension development, including systematic, intensive, explicit phonics, using decodable vocabulary-controlled texts (texts in which 95% of the words are decodable), as is determined appropriate by the state board of education.

MissouriMissouri - Phonics Instruction Pilot Project
  • Participants in the pilot program shall employ explicit phonics instruction to teach reading. Reading instruction using implied recognition of words or partial words through the use of pictures and other references other than explicit pronunciation of phonetic letter combinations shall not be admitted as a substitute or in combination with explicit phonics instruction.

MissouriMissouri Read to be Ready Program
  • The After-School Retreat Reading and Assessment Grant Program awards grants to schools to develop after-school reading and assessment programs.

MontanaMontana Office of Public Instruction Reading Excellence Program
  • School districts must base activities on scientifically based reading research and must enter into an agreement with experts on the particular reading approaches being implemented.

MontanaREAD Montana!
  • READ Montana! seeks to provide support for balanced literacy programs and the coordination of a schoolwide teaching and learning philosophy.

New HampshireNew Hampshire Reading Excellence Act Grant
  • Funds will be used to support the provision of extended-learning opportunities that support classroom instruction in reading.

New JerseyNew Jersey - Literacy Executive Order
  • The Executive Order creates the Early Literacy Task Force which is to identify research-based programs, practices, methods and approaches that can be incorporated into a statewide plan to improve ealry literacy

New MexicoNew Mexico Full-day Kindergarten Literacy Readiness Program
  • State-funded full-day kindergarten classrooms must provide a comprehensive research-based early literacy program that identifies the concepts and skills necessary to establish the foundation of success in early reading and includes instructional strategies that ensure children learn identified concepts and skills. Instruction must be child-centered and based on developmentally appropriate teaching practices.
    N.M. Admin. Code tit. 6 § 30.5.11

New MexicoNew Mexico Reading Excellence Act Grant
  • The state plans to build a knowledge base about scientifically based reading research and English Language Learners (ELL) and offer programs for ELL students.

New YorkNew York Reading for Results
  • Local educational agencies receiving subgrants must use supervised individuals, including tutors, trained in scientifically based reading research, to provide additional support, before/after school, on weekends, during non-instructional periods of the school day or in the summer for children preparing to enter kindergarten and students in grades K-3 who are experiencing difficulty in reading.

  • A Reading for Results school may use a portion of its funds to purchase curriculum, materials, instructional approaches and associated professional development to implement evidence-based reading and language arts practices.

North CarolinaComprehensive Reading Plan for North Carolina Public Schools
  • The State Board of Education must revise the standard course of study to provide schools with guidance in the implementation of a "balanced approach" to literacy instruction that includes key elements of both phonics and whole-language approaches. Instruction should be based on practices for which there is strong evidence of effectiveness in existing empirical scientific research studies on reading development.

OhioOhio Literacy Initiative
  • The department of education administrative codes require the board to formulate and prescribe minimum standards requiring the use of phonics as a technique in the teaching of reading in grades K-3. Phonics instruction must occur in meaningful contexts.

  • Classroom Reading Grants may be used for programs, curriculum materials and technology to help improve students’ reading skills.

  • Schools must use volunteer reading tutors.

  • Reading instruction strategies used by schools must be based on reliable, replicable research and must include a balance of instructional strategies that support the attainment of reading skills.

OklahomaOklahoma Reading Excellence Act Grant
  • Oklahoma established a new core curriculum based on scientifically based reading research for 2000.

OklahomaOklahoma Reading Sufficiency Act
  • Curriculum should focus on five components of reading instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, spelling, reading fluency and comprehension. If a student is not reading at grade level, a special school reading committee must prepare a reading plan that includes a program of instruction designed to bring the student up to grade level.

OregonOregon - Pilot Program on Elementary Reading Instruction
  • The purpose of this pilot program is to incorporate explicit phonics instruction into language arts programs in elementary schools.

OregonOregon Early Success Reading Initiative
  • Schools must use research-based methods for teaching reading, and methods should be aligned with state standards for reading and common curriculum goals.

PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Read to Succeed
  • Grant recipients must identify specific instructional methods, strategies and activities based on current reading research to teach reading and help all their students achieve Pennsylvania’s academic standards.

Rhode IslandRhode Island Literacy and Dropout Prevention Act
  • Curriculum in grades K-3 must focus on literacy: reading, writing, speaking, listening and mathematics.

Rhode IslandRhode Island Reading Initiative/Reading Excellence Grant
  • All funded schools will be required to develop and implement a comprehensive reading plan as part of each child's transition from home or preschool into kindergarten and through the primary grades. This three-year plan will include the documentation and assessment methods to be used to track each child's reading progress. These plans and the assessment measures will inform for classroom instruction, referrals to special education, tutorial assistance, enrollment in Summer Bridge reading programs, enrollment in any special school-based supports, and parent discussions.

  • Teachers are prepared to teach students using a balanced approach to literacy instruction relying primarily on the research outlined in "Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children," a 1998 publication of the National Research Council.

Rhode IslandRhode Island Statewide Early Reading Success Institute
  • The curriculum components for the institute are determined by the findings of the Early Reading Success Panel.

South CarolinaSouth Carolina Parent Education Programs
  • Nationally validated program and curriculum training, such as Parents As Teachers, Motheread, Parent-Home-Child, etc., must be included.

South DakotaSouth Dakota Advanced Reading Enhancement Approach (AREA)
  • Teachers are prepared to utilize the Four Block Method, Guided Reading, phonics and vocabulary, self-selected reading and writing instruction within their classrooms.

TennesseeTennessee Governor's Reading Initiative
  • The state board of education must develop policies on effective reading instruction and intervention based on identified student needs.

TexasTexas Reading Initiative
  • Texas reading curriculum must be based on a balanced research-based approach that includes print awareness, phonemic awareness, graphophonemic knowledge, oral reading ability and reading comprehension skills.

  • Accelerated Reading Instruction Programs are designed for students not showing adequate progress in reading development and who are at risk for reading difficulties, including dyslexia. Such programs are required to address deficiencies identified through the reading instruments administered in grades K-2.

TexasTexas Ready to Read Grants
  • Schools receiving grants must provide scientific, research-based pre-reading instruction for the purpose of directly improving pre-reading skills and for identifying cost-effective models for pre-reading intervention.

UtahUtah Reading/Literacy Legislation
  • Planned reading instruction must include early and explicit teaching of phonetic decoding skills; continuous and frequent exposure to a wide range of quality literature; writing to foster and reinforce word recognition, language structure, and experience; and regular, adequate time to read a wide variety of materials across the curriculum.
    Utah Code Ann. § 53A-1-606

UtahUtah Reads
  • An effort is underway to help administrators and teachers select from among the best research-based reading programs available on the market.

VermontVermont Preventing Early School Failure; Reading Instruction
  • Public schools must use research-based reading instruction.

VermontVermont Reads
  • Local education agencies are required to use scientifically based reading curriclum in their reading programs.

VirginiaVirginia Early Intervention Reading Initiative
  • The initiative provides 1st graders who have reading difficulties with an additional two and a half hours of reading instruction every week during the school year.

WashingtonWashington Effective Reading Programs Legislation
  • The Center for the Improvement of Student Learning must identify effective reading programs based on criteria, including whether the program will help the student meet the state-level and classroom-based assessments for reading; and whether the program has achieved documented results for students on valid and reliable assessments.

WashingtonWashington Reading Corps
  • Volunteer tutors provide research-based tutoring to struggling readers. Schools may choose their own curriculum so long as it is based on research-based methods.

West VirginiaWest Virginia Reading for All
  • West Virginia implemented K-4 summer extended-day programs to enhance reading skills of at-risk students. Thirty grants of $10,000 each are awarded annually in a competitive grant process to individual schools. Awardees coordinate West Virginia READS funds with other available resources (human and financial) to provide a quality summer-reading program.

WisconsinWisconsin Reading Evaluation and Demonstration of Success (READS)
  • Funding provides for the implementation of scientifically based reading instruction strategies.

WisconsinWisconsin Reading Instruction Legislation
  • A reading specialist employed in each district must develop and implement a reading curriculum in grades K-12.

WyomingWyoming Reading Assessment and Remediation Act
  • Students not showing appropriate reading competence shall be placed on an individualized reading plan to remedy the reading-related difficulty utilizing an appropriate research-based intervention program.

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