|NC||Signed into law 06/2013||P-12||Alternate ACT/PLAN for Certain Students|
Requires the administration of an alternate to the ACT or an alternate to the PLAN precursor test to the ACT to certain students with severe disabilities.
Requires the State Board of Education to ensure that parents of students enrolled in all public schools,...
|LA||Signed into law 06/2013||P-12||Student with Disability Participation in Statewide ACT Administration|
Provides that a student with disabilities who is not pursuing a regular diploma must not be administered the ACT, unless the student's parent or guardian requests, in writing, that the student be administered the test or the student's Individualized Education ...
|TX||Signed into law 06/2013||P-12||Exemption of Limited English Proficient Student from State Assessment|
From fiscal note: For the purposes of determining whether a student is allowed an exemption or postponement of an assessment because the student recently enrolled in a school in the U.S. and is of limited English proficiency, prohibits the consideration of a s...
|TX||Signed into law 06/2013||P-12||Performance Standards on Alternative Assessments|
Amends provisions regarding performance standards on alternative assessments for special education students. Prohibits the Texas Education Agency from adopting a performance standard that indicates a student's performance on the alternate assessment does not m...
|TX||Vetoed 06/2013||P-12||Assessment Instruments|
From fiscal note: Requires each assessment instrument to be determined to be valid and reliable on the basis of empirical evidence by an entity that is independent of the test developer and the Texas Education Agency (TEA). Requires assessment instruments to b...
|LA||Signed into law 06/2013||P-12||Exclusion of Certain Exceptional Students from Testing|
Excludes a public high school student with an exceptionality, excluding a gifted or talented student, who is not pursuing a high school diploma, from administration of any statewide assessment, including the ACT, unless the student's Individualized Education P...
|TN||Signed into law 05/2013||P-12||Occupational Diploma|
Requires state board of education to create an occupational high school diploma for students with disabilities. Directs board to set appropriate standards, benchmarks for attendance, academic achievement, and job readiness skills. Waives high school assessment...
|CA||Signed into law 08/2012||P-12||Exit Exam and Students with Disabilities|
Delays until Class of 2016 the implementation of alternative means for students with disabilites to demonstrate achievement of standards as required for high school exit exam (i.e., extends exemption of students with disabilities from exit exam requirement). A...
|TX||Adopted 05/2012||P-12||Implementation of Testing Program|
19 TAC 101.3001, 3003, 3011, 3021, 3022, 3023, 3024
From Texas Register: Repeals §101.3001 and §101.3003 and adopts new §§101.3011 and 101.3021-101.3024, concerning implementation of testing program.
Adopted new 101.3011, Implementation and Administration of Academic Content Area Assessment Instruments, retai...
|CA||Adopted 04/2012||P-12||CAHSEE Alternative Means|
5 CA ADC 1216.1
Adopts emergency regulation to extend to January 1, 2013 deadline for state board to implement regulations providing for an "alternative means" high school exit examination for students with disabilities. Pages 20-21 of 28: http://www.oal.ca.gov/res/docs/pdf/n...
|TX||Adopted 12/2011||P-12||Assessment of English Language Learners|
19 TAC 101.1001, 1003, 1005, 1007, 1009, 1010, 1011, 1021, 1023, 1025
Repeals and readopts numerous sections concerning the participation of limited English proficient students in state assessments, to reflect changes to the state assessment program beginning with the implementation of the State of Texas Assessments of Academic ...
|CA||Vetoed 10/2011||P-12||Assessment of LEP Students and Students with Disabilities|
From bill summary: Requires California's assessments to be valid, reliable, and comparable for pupils who are limited English proficient and for pupils with developmental disabilities. Requires any primary language assessment developed by the state department ...
|WA||Signed into law 04/2011||P-12||Assessment|
Requires the office of the superintendent of public instruction to continue to actively collaborate with teachers
and directors of special education programs in the development and implementation of a process to transition from the current
portfolio system of ...
|CA||Vetoed 09/2010||P-12||Including Primary Language Assessment in State Assessment/Accountability System|
From bill summary: Requires that any primary language assessment developed by the department and administered to limited English proficient students, as identified pursuant to existing law, on or after July 1, 2013, be included in the state's assessment system...
|MS||Signed into law 04/2010||P-12||Specified Accomodations|
Requires local school districts to use certain accommodations to preserve integrity and validity of student assessment test.
|VA||Signed into law 02/2010||P-12||Audit of Use of Alternative Assessment|
Requires the Board of Education to conduct an audit of any school division that utilizes the Virginia Grade Level Alternative assessment instrument, in grades three through eight, for more than three percent of its students with disabilities population in thos...
|NY||Adopted 01/2010||P-12||Regents Requirements for Students with Disabilities|
Title 8 NYCRR Section 100.5
Amends section 100.5 to extend the Regents Competency Test (RCT) safety net provision for an additional year, thereby allowing students with disabilities who first enter grade 9 prior to September 2011 and who fail one or more of the required Regents exams to ...
|IL||Adopted 11/2009||P-12||Public Schools Evaluation, Recognition and Supervision|
23 IAC 1.20, .30, .100, .240, .420, .465, .480, .510, .737
Partially from "Notice of Adopted Amendments" in Illinois Register (changes from this rulemaking but not listed below are technical in nature or echo recent changes in legislation):
Section 1.20: Revised to distinguish among the appropriate levels of sign-of...
|TX||Signed into law 06/2009||P-12||State Assessments|
H.B. 3 - Section 50 through 52
Directs the state education agency, in developing state assessments for math, reading, writing, social studies and science for grades 3-8, to allow student scores to provide reliable information relating to a student's satisfactory performance for each perform...
|TX||Signed into law 06/2009||P-12||Accommodations and Exemptions|
H.B. 3 - Section 56
Whereas former language allowed students with an IEP to be exempted from criterion-referenced assessments in grades 3-8, end-of-course assessments and criterion-referenced assessments for students with disabilities, new language provides students with an IEP m...
|OH||Adopted 06/2009||P-12||State Assessments|
Clarifies circumstances under which a student may be excused from taking a state test required at the student's grade level. Clarifies that a student in grades 3-8 who was retained in the same grade level from one school year to the next school year, must take...
|AR||Signed into law 04/2009||P-12||Accomodations for Students with Difficulty with Sensory Processing|
Allows reasonable accommodation by the Department of Education and each school district for a student who has difficulty with sensory processing in reaction to oversensitivity to full spectrum light when taking state required tests; allows a student to use col...
|KY||Signed into law 03/2009||P-12||Assessment of Exceptional Students|
S.B. 1 Section 20
Requires the state department of education and state board, as they revise the state assessment and accountability system for implementation in 2011-12, to facilitate an extensive review of how exceptional children's needs are being met through the required st...
|LA||Adopted 02/2009||P-12||State LEAP Alternative Assessments|
LAC 28:CXI.Chapter 19, 1901 to 1925
Amends rules relating to LEAP Alternate Assessments.
|KY||Adopted 02/2009||P-12||Special Populations in the State-Required Assessment|
703 KAR 5:070
Establishes procedures for the inclusion of special student populations in the State-required assessment and accountability programs. http://www.lrc.ky.gov/kar/703/005/070reg.htm...
|TX||Adopted 02/2009||P-12||Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills|
19 TAC 2.101.B.101.23
Sets the standard of satisfactory performance on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS), as appropriate for the reading and mathematics assessments in Grades 3-8 based on the implementation of a vertical scale. http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/...
|LA||Adopted 10/2008||P-12||Alternative Assessment Results|
Amends rules relating to the school, district and state accountability system. Relates to the inclusion of alternate assessment results for students with disabilities in accountability system.
|CA||Vetoed 09/2008||P-12||exit exams|
Reenacts provisions of former law which required a school district or state special school to grant a high school diploma to a pupil with a disability who was scheduled to graduate from high school, did not pass high school exit examination, did not receive a ...
|CA||Signed into law 09/2008||P-12||Alternate assessments|
Relates to a high school exit examination in English language arts and mathematics. Creates a panel to make recommendations regarding alternative means for eligible pupils with disabilities to demonstrate that they have achieved the same level of academic achi...
|ID||Adopted 08/2008||P-12||LEP Assessment|
Amends rules relating to thoroughness. Requires that first year limited English proficient students are required to take the standard achievement test for math and science.
|AK||Adopted 10/2007||P-12||ALTERNATE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT|
4 AAC 04.160, .775
Amends rules dealing with alternate performance standards for students with significant cognitive disabilities to include proficiency levels for the alternate assessment based on evaluating students' ability and performance on academic tasks. ALASKA 3551
|AK||Adopted 10/2007||P-12||ASSESSMENT PROGRAM FOR STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES|
4 AAC 06.775
Adopts by reference, the 2007 edition of the Participation Guidelines for Alaska Students, setting forth the requirements in assessments for students with disabilities. ALASKA 3556
|IL||Adopted 09/2007||P-12||Testing, Professional Development and Background Checks at Special Education Facilities|
23 IAC 401.10 thru .260 (non seq.)
Amends policies regarding the assessment of special education students at nonpublic, public out-of-state, public residential or private special education facilities. Transfers authority for the oversight of such assessment from the state board of education to ...
|GA||Adopted 09/2007||P-12||Student Assessment Programs|
Adds language regarding the Assessing Comprehension and Communication in English State to State for English Language Learners (ACCESS for ELLs), an English language proficiency test administered annually to all English language learners (ELLs) to determine stu...
|AK||Adopted 09/2007||P-12||ASSESSMENT PROGRAM FOR STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES|
4 AAC 06.775
Adopts by reference, the 2007 edition of the Participation Guidelines for Alaska Students, setting forth the requirements in assessments for students with disabilities. ALASKA 3556
|LA||Adopted 08/2007||P-12||School, District and State Accountability System|
LAC 28:LXXXIII.4302 and 4313
Revises the use of Alternative Assessment results in accountability as suggested by the Department of Education's Technical Advisory Committee. Revises district accountability to better align with the high school redesign efforts initiated by the governor. Ame...
|LA||Adopted 06/2007||P-12||Integrated LEAP and Accommodations for Special Populations|
LAC 28:CXI.1709-1729, 3306, and 3307
Provides information regarding addition of achievement level descriptors for iLEAP, which causes a reformatting of a chapter. Adds language regarding iLEAP accommodations for special populations (page 21 of 168). Pages 2- of 168: http://www.doa.louisiana.gov/o...
|LA||Adopted 03/2007||P-12||Participation in Alternate Assessments|
Clarifies guidelines for the participation in alternate assessments for students with disabilities who cannot participate in regular assessments. Page 13 of 118: http://www.doa.louisiana.gov/osr/reg/0703/0703rul.pdf...
|LA||Adopted 03/2007||P-12||Statewide Assessments|
LAC 28:CXI.305 and Chapter 19
Approves for advertisement revisions to Bulletin 118- Statewide Assessment Standards and Practices. Consolidates statewide test information. Provides easy access to that information. Incorporates guidelines for newly adopted statewide assessments. Adds new lan...
|LA||Adopted 02/2007||P-12||Statewide Assessment Standards and Practices|
LAC 28:CXI.Chapters 1, 3, 5, 18, 23, 27, 33, and 35
Makes various changes to state assessment system. Creates end-of-course tests, to be phased in over a period of six years starting in fall 2007, in the following:
1. Algebra I;
3. English I;
4. English II;
6. American History;
|LA||Adopted 02/2007||P-12||State Assessment System|
LAC 28:CXI.Chapter 17 and 20
Adds new language in Chapter 17 regarding statewide assessments. Updates Integrated Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (iLEAP) (Chapter 17) and Louisiana Alternate Assessment, Level 2 (LAA 2) (Chapter 20) to provide educators with finalized information a...
|CA||Vetoed 09/2006||P-12||Assessment Accommodations for ELL Students|
Requires a pupil identified as limited English proficient and who is either literate or receives instruction in his or her primary language to take the standards-based achievement test in his or her primary language as soon as the primary language test is avai...
|FL||Signed into law 05/2006||P-12||High School Graduation Requirements for Students with Disabilities|
H.B. 7087 - Section 23 (3) - (8)
Requires local boards to modify basic courses, as necessary, to to assure exceptional students the opportunity to meet the graduation requirements for a standard diploma, using one of the following strategies:
1. Assignment of the exceptional student to an exc...
|OK||Signed into law 05/2006||P-12||End-of-Instruction Exams|
S.B. 1792 - Section 6
Clarifies that 2 of the 6 end-of-course exams all students must pass effective with the Class of 2012 are Algebra I and English II. Provides that students must pass 2 additional end-of-course exams chosen from Algebra II, Biology I, English III, geometry and ...
|AZ||Signed into law 05/2006||P-12||Assessment of Students w/ Disabilities|
All students with disabilities in grades 2-12 will ge included in all state and district assessments, with appropriate accommodations and alternate assessments when necessary, as designated by IEP. Also addresses evaluation of students with disabilities and pa...
|FL||Signed into law 05/2006||P-12||Alternative Assessments for Students with Disabilities|
H.B. 7087 (Section 40)
Legislation adds a provision for alternative assessments.
For students seeking a special diploma (pursuant to s. 1003.438), the Department of Education must develop or select and implement an alternate assessment tool that accurately measures the skills and co...
|ID||Signed into law 04/2006||P-12||Exempting ELLs in U.S. Less Than Two Years|
Provides that a student who has been enrolled for less than 2 full school years in an elementary or secondary school in the U.S. and who scores below a level 4 on the state's English language proficiency assessment may be exempted from participating in the sta...
|LA||Adopted 02/2006||P-12||Statewide Assessment Standards and Practices|
LAC 28:CXI.107, 305, 307, 309, 313, 315, 701, 1101, 1115, 1141, 1151,1153, 1301, 1313, 1335, 1345, 1347, 1349, 1351, 1355, 1501, 1701, 1901, 2001,2501, 2701, 3303, 3305, 3307
Amends Bulletin 118--Statewide Assessment Standards and Practices.
(1) Revise the names of two of Louisiana's statewide assessment tests by removing for the 21st Century from each. Graduation Exit Examination (GEE) and
Louisiana Educational Assessment Progr...
|LA||Adopted 12/2005||P-12||Testing Students with Disabilities|
LAC 28:XXXIX.503 and 1301
Revises high stakes testing policy for students with disabilities to meet federal requirements.
Page 39 of 106: http://www.doa.state.la.us/osr/reg/0512/0512RUL.pdf...
|LA||Adopted 12/2005||P-12||Alternate Assessment Participation Guidelines|
Establishes guidelines for the participation of students with disabilities in alternate assessments who cannot participate in regular assessment.
Page 38 of 106: http://www.doa.state.la.us/osr/reg/0512/0512RUL.pdf...
|LA||Adopted 12/2005||P-12||General Education Exam and Students with Disabilities|
LAC 28: CXV.2319
Allows the Superintendent of Education to waive the final component of the General Education Exam for student with disabilities if the Department of Education determines that the student's disability significantly impacts their ability to pass the final requir...
|GA||Adopted 12/2005||P-12||Procedures for Exemption from Graduation Exam|
Establishes "variance" procedure for a student not eligible for waiver (not rendered incapable of passing a section of the GHSGT or the
GHSWT due to a disability or substantial hardship) to demonstrate proficiency on Georgia High School Graduation Tests (GHSGT...
|WV||Adopted 11/2005||P-12||Alternate Academic Achievement Standards|
Title 126, Series 44P
WEST VIRGINIA 4765, SUMMARY: Amends rules relating to alternate academic achievement standards for West Virginia schools.
EFFECTIVE DATE: 12/14/2005...
|LA||Adopted 11/2005||P-12||NCLB Assessment and AYP|
LAC 28:LXXXIII.305, 509, 703, 3901-3905
Amends the accountability system calculations to take advantage of new flexibility in guidance for No Child Left Behind and address situations that were not considered when the accountability policy was initially written.
§305. Calculating the CRT Index
|CA||Vetoed 10/2005||P-12||Assessment Accommodations for English Language Learners|
This bill would require a pupil to take achievement tests in his or her primary language, if the pupil is identified as limited English proficient, and is either literate in his or her primary language or receives instruction in his or her primary language. Th...
|CA||Signed into law 10/2005||P-12||Assessing English Language Learners; and Posting State Test Items|
This bill would require a pupil identified as limited English proficient who is enrolled in any of grades 2 to 11, and who either receives instruction in his or her primary language or has been enrolled in a school in the United States for less than 12 months,...
|GA||Adopted 07/2005||P-12||Student Assessments|
Clarifies rules regarding testing programs and student assessment. Clarifies assessment participation requirements for English language learners, students with disabilities, students in each grade K-8, and students taking the Georgia High School Graduation Tes...
|LA||Signed into law 06/2005||P-12||Alternative Assessments/Accomodations|
AN ACT To amend and reenact R.S. 17:24.4(F)(3), relative to alternative assessments for students with certain disabilities. Requires that, in addition to the alternate assessment accommodations for students with significant cognitive disabilities, the departme...
|ID||Temporary Rule Adoption - Concurrently Proposed 06/2005||P-12||Alternate Standard Achievement Test for LEP Students|
Proposes rules regarding the Limited English Proficient (LEP) students. Sets forth rules for LEP students to take an alternate Standard Achievement Test. ...
|MS||Rule Adoption 05/2005||P-12||Statewide Assessment System|
Provides that the information contained within the Guidelines for Testing Students with Disabilities and the Guidelines for Educational Services and Assessement for English Language Learners and any subsequent updates shall apply to all public school personnel...
|CO||Signed into law 05/2005||P-12||Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in State Assessment|
Provides that if, as part of a student's individual educational program (IEP), a student attends part-time a school or program away from the school where the student is enrolled, the district in which a student is enrolled may designate either the school of re...
|OK||Signed into law 05/2005||P-12||Achieving Classroom Excellence Task Force|
S.B. 982, Section 4
Section 4 creates the Achieving Classroom Excellence Task Force. The purpose of the task force is to study the testing requirements for eighth-grade students and high school students. The task force is to study, hold public hearings, and make recommendations ...
|AZ||Signed into law 04/2005||P-12||Special Education and the AIMS|
States that a student with an individualized education program (IEP) is not required to earn a passing score on a competency test required for high school graduation unless the student is learning at a level appropriate for the student's grade level in a speci...
|CA||Vetoed 09/2004||P-12||Special Education: Visually Impaired Pupils|
Creates the Advisory Task Force for Education of Blind and Visually Impaired Pupils to provide input to formulate the most effective policy for the education of such pupils. Requires the Department of Education to provide outreach and technical assistance to p...
|MS||Rule Adoption 07/2004||P-12||Assessment of Students with Disabilities|
Establishes rules regarding assessment of students with disabilities. Provides that the information contained within the guidelines for testing special populations and any subsequent updates shall apply to all public school personnel who are responsible for th...
|ID||Temporary Rule Adoption 05/2004||P-12||Language Proficiency for LEP Students|
IDAPA 08.02.03 §§ 111-112
Amends rules to allow new Limited English Proficient (LEP) students to take a language proficiency test in lieu of the state reading test.
http://www2.state.id.us/adm/adminrules/bulletin/04jun.pdf (page 30)...
|LA||Adopted 04/2004||P-12||School, District and State Accountability|
LAC 28:LXXXIII.303, 311, 1701, 2701, 2702, 2703, 2713, 2715, 2717, 2719, 2721, 3905, 4001, 4003, 4005
Adopts rules relating to the implementation of fundamental changes in the classroom by helping schools and communities focus on student achievement. Clarifies method for calculating a School Performance Score for elementary, middle and high schools. Establishe...
|LA||Adopted 04/2004||P-12||Curricular Design for Exceptional Students|
Repeals rules that address alternate assessment and curricular design for students with disabilities in special schools. Provides consistency with rules governing students with disabilities not attending special schools. ...
|MA||Rule Adoption 03/2004||P-12||Comprehensive Assessment System Performance Appeals|
603 CMR 30.00
Amends rules relating to the Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) performance appeals process, and incorporates provisions regarding student with disabilities. MASSACHUSETTS REG 8280 (SN)...
|MA||Emergency Rule Adoption 02/2004||P-12||Comprehensive Assessment System and Standards|
603 CMR 30.00
Establishes emergency rules relating to students with disabilities. Revises rules that relates to performance appeals. MASSACHUSETTS REG 8283 (SN)...
|TX||Emergency Rule Adoption 07/2003||P-12||Texas Success Initiative|
19 TAC 4.51 thru .60
Establishes rules to implement the Success Initiative. Provides purpose, authority, and definitions. Specifies exemptions and exceptions. Concerns assessment instruments, minimum passing standards, advisement and plan for academic success, and determination of...
|TX||Signed into law 05/2003||P-12||Special Education Programs In Public Schools|
A special education student can be exempted from the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) and given an alternative assessment instrument if the student receives modified instruction in the essential knowledge and skills and the TAKS would not provid...
|MN||Signed into law 05/2003||P-12||Profile of Learning, High School Graduation Requirements, NCLB-Compliant Testing System, State Standards|
H.F. 302 (multiple provisions)
Effective the 2003-04 school year and later, bars the state education commissioner from implementing the profile of learning portion of the state's results-oriented graduation rule, or classroom assessments that schools must use. Replaces references to "result...
|GA||Signed into law 05/2003||P-12||Assessment, Maximum Class size, Instruction, Revenue|
Revises provisions relating to payment of fees for advanced placement tests; revises provision relating to the release of certain test questions; deletes provision that students with alternate assessments shall not count for accountability purposes; changes pr...
|MN||Signed into law 05/2003||P-12|
|Commissioner Recommendation Required on Provisions of State High School Tests|
H.F. 302 (multiple provisions)
Effective the day after enactment, requires the commissioner to provide written recommendations to the committees of the legislature having jurisdiction over kindergarten through grade 12 education policy and budget issues by February 1, 2004, that: (1) identi...
|UT||Became law without GOVERNOR'S signature. 01/2003||P-12||Education Testing|
Relates to education testing amendments. Eliminates the requirement to include constructed response test times in certain achievement tests. Directs that the savings resulting from this change be used to pay for online test administration....
|CA||Vetoed 09/2002||P-12||Alternate assessments for exit examination for individuals with disabilities|
Requires the Superintendent of Public Instruction and the advisory committee established by this bill to develop guidelines regarding the method and content of alternate assessments to the high school exit examination for those individuals with disabilities wh...
|FL||Signed into law 06/2002||P-12||Education Code Re-Write: Assessment Cutoff Scores, Accommodations|
Grandfathers in the scores of 10th-graders who took the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) in spring 2001. Requires that when state board sets higher cutoff scores for 10th-grade FCAT, higher cutoff scores affect only those students who have not yet ...
|MO||Signed into law 06/2002||P-12||Major Bill - Assessment Component|
For students who receive special education services, the state board must, through a teacher panel, determine if appropriate alternate assessments exist or, if not, create such an assessment. When it is determined by the student's individualized education pla...
|CT||Signed into law 06/2001||P-12||Change in Exemptions for limited-English-proficient students|
Limits the exemptions from the Connecticut Master Test and the Connecticut Academic Performance Test for limited-English-proficient students to students enrolled for one year or less, rather than three years or less, in a program of bilingual education or Engl...
|CO||Signed into law 05/2001||P-12||Exempting Schools with a large amount of students who have IEPs|
Authorizes the State Board of Education by rule to exclude a school from receiving an academic performance grade if more than 95% of the students at the school have individual educational programs; clarifies which students scores will not be used in a school's...
|MO||Signed into law 05/2001||P-12||Assessment Requirements for Limited English, Low-Performing and Special Education Students|
Provides that assessment scores of students for whom English is a second language (ESL) shall not be counted until the student has been educated in a school where English is the primary language for three full years. Also, the act eliminates the mandatory rete...
|TN||Signed into law 05/2001||P-12||Testing Accomodations|
Requires the state department of education to develop alternative assessment for disabled students. The department is required to develop two alternative assessments as follows: (1) An academic skills assessment to be administered at an appropriate level of ac...
|NM||Vetoed 04/2001||P-12||Students Tested; Reporting|
Relates to annual school accountability reporting. There are five indices through which public school performance shall be measured and reported to school districts: (1) student achievement as measured by a nationally norm-referenced or criterion-referenced t...
|TX||Signed into law 04/2001||P-12||Accomodation for Mobility and Language|
Students are exempt from testing for a period of up to one year after initial enrollment in a school in the United States if the student is of limited English proficiency and has not demonstrated proficiency in English as determined by the assessment system; e...
|GA||Signed into law 03/2000||P-12||Omnibus Bill - Student IEP as Alternative Assessment|
A student's IEP may serve as the alternative assessment....