ECS
From the ECS State Policy Database
1994-2014

Education Commission of the States • 700 Broadway, Suite 810 • Denver, CO 80203-3442 • 303.299.3600 • fax 303.296.8332 • www.ecs.org

The following summary includes policies ECS has tracked in this database since 1994. This database is made possible by your state's fiscal support of the Education Commission of the States (ECS). Most entries are legislative, although rules/regulations and executive orders that make substantive changes are included. Every effort is made to collect the latest available version of policies; in some instances, recent changes might not be reflected. For expediency purposes minimal attention has been paid to style (capitalization, punctuation) and format. To view the documents, click on the blue triangle next to the topic of interest.

Please cite use of the database as: Education Commission of the States (ECS) State Policy Database, retrieved [date].

State Status/Date Level Summary
+ 21st Century Skills
+ Accountability
+ Accountability--Accreditation
+ Accountability--Measures/Indicators
+ Accountability--Reporting Results
+ Accountability--Rewards
+ Accountability--Sanctions/Interventions
+ Accountability--Sanctions/Interventions--Learnfare
+ Accountability--Sanctions/Interventions--No Pass No Drive
+ Accountability--Sanctions/Interventions--No Pass No Play
+ Accountability--Sanctions/Interventions--Takeovers
+ Accountability--School Improvement
+ Adult Basic Education
+ Assessment
+ Assessment--Accommodations
+ Assessment--Backlash
+ Assessment--College Entrance Exams
+ Assessment--Computer Based
+ Assessment--End-of-Course
+ Assessment--Formative/Interim
+ Assessment--NAEP (NAEP Results and NAEP Organization)
+ Assessment--Performance Based/Portfolio
+ Assessment--Value Added
+ At-Risk (incl. Dropout Prevention)
+ At-Risk (incl. Dropout Prevention)--Alternative Education
+ At-Risk (incl. Dropout Prevention)--Drugs/Alcohol
+ Athletics/Extracurricular Activities
+ Attendance
+ Attendance--Compulsory
+ Attendance--Statutory Ages (Upper and Lower)
+ Attendance--Truancy/Chronic Absence
+ Background Checks
+ Brain Research
+ Business Involvement
+ Career/Technical Education
+ Career/Technical Education--Career Academies/Apprenticeship
+ Cheating
+ Choice of Schools
+ Choice of Schools--Charter Schools
+ Choice of Schools--Charter Schools--Charter Districts
+ Choice of Schools--Charter Schools--Closings
+ Choice of Schools--Charter Schools--Cyber Charters
+ Choice of Schools--Charter Schools--Finance
+ Choice of Schools--Charter Schools--Research
+ Choice of Schools--Choice/Open Enrollment
+ Choice of Schools--Innovation Schools
+ Choice of Schools--Magnet or Specialized Schools
+ Choice of Schools--Tax Credits
+ Choice of Schools--Vouchers
+ Choice of Schools--Vouchers--Privately Funded
+ Civic Education
+ Civic Education--Character Education
+ Civic Education--Civic Knowledge and Literacy
+ Civic Education--Curriculum/Standards
+ Civic Education--Pledge of Allegiance
+ Class Size
+ Common Core State Standards and Assessments
+ Competency-Based Education (K-12)
+ Counseling/Guidance
+ Curriculum
+ Curriculum--Alignment
+ Curriculum--Arts Education
+ Curriculum--Censorship
+ Curriculum--Computer Science
+ Curriculum--Core Curriculum
+ Curriculum--Drivers Education
+ Curriculum--Environmental Education
+ Curriculum--Excusal
+ Curriculum--Family Living Education
+ Curriculum--Financial Literacy/Economics Ed.
+ Curriculum--Foreign Language/Sign Language
+ Curriculum--Geography Education
+ Curriculum--Health and Nutrition Education
+ Curriculum--Home Economics
+ Curriculum--International Education
+ Curriculum--Language Arts
+ Curriculum--Language Arts--Writing/Spelling
+ Curriculum--Mathematics
+ Curriculum--Multicultural
+ Curriculum--Physical Education
+ Curriculum--Science
+ Curriculum--Sex Education
+ Curriculum--Social Studies/History
+ Data-Driven Improvement
+ Demographics
+ Demographics--Condition of Children/Adults
+ Demographics--Enrollments
+ Desegregation
+ Economic/Workforce Development
+ Economic/Workforce Development--Value of an Education
+ Education Research
+ English Language Learner/Bilingual
+ Equity
+ Federal
+ Finance
+ Finance--Adequacy/Core Cost
+ Finance--Aid to Private Schools
+ Finance--Bonds
+ Finance--District
+ Finance--Does Money Matter?
+ Finance--Equity
+ Finance--Facilities
+ Finance--Federal
+ Finance--Funding Formulas
+ Finance--Litigation
+ Finance--Local Foundations/Funds
+ Finance--Lotteries
+ Finance--Performance Funding
+ Finance--Private Giving
+ Finance--Resource Efficiency
+ Finance--State Budgets/Expenditures
+ Finance--Student Fees
+ Finance--Taxes/Revenues
+ Finance--Taxes/Revenues--Alternative Revenues
+ Governance
+ Governance--Deregulation/Waivers/Home Rule
+ Governance--Ethics/Conflict of Interest
+ Governance--Federalism
+ Governance--Local/Mayoral Takeovers
+ Governance--Mandates
- Governance--Regional Entities
CASigned into law 09/2014P-12Proposed Budgets of Districts and County Offices of Education
A.B. 2585
From bill summary: If the budget of a county office of education is disapproved, requires the county superintendent of schools and the county board of education, on or before September 8, to review the recommendations of the superintendent of public instructio...

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NYSigned into law 09/2014P-12Procedures for the Orderly Closure of a Special Act School District
A.B. 6715
From bill summary: requires the board of education of a special act school district to provide written notice to the commissioner of education with a plan for closure of the school and, until such school district meets all financial obligations, submit financi...

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NYSigned into law 09/2014P-12Leasing of Real Property by Boards of Cooperative Educational Services
A.B. 9570
From bill summary: Allows boards of cooperative educational services (BOCES) to enter into leases of no more than 10 years with public entities and no more than 20 years with non-public entities. Provides the longer leases require written approval of the commi...

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MASigned into law 08/2014P-12Regional School District Planning Committee
H.B. 3789
Allows towns to create a regional school district planning committee and defines membership. https://malegislature.gov/Bills/188/House/H3789...

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ILSigned into law 06/2014P-12Abolition of Regional Superintendent of Schools in Region with 2,000,000 Inhabitants
H.B. 1711
 In provisions concerning the abolition of the office of the regional superintendent of schools in educational service regions containing 2,000,000 or more inhabitants and the transfer of rights, powers, duties, and responsibilities to educational service cent...

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NYSigned into law 06/2014P-12BOCES Contracts to Provide Professional Development to Out-of-State Districts
A.B. 9062
Authorizes boards of cooperative educational services (BOCES) to enter into contracts with out-of-state districts to provide educator professional development. Authorizes BOCES to enter into contracts with out-of-state districts for up to five years (previous ...

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OKSigned into law 06/2014P-12Regional Education Administrative Districts
S.B. 436
From the bill analysis: Allows the State Department of Education to establish Regional Education Administrative Districts to provide administrative services to school districts throughout the state. The State Department of Education will provide information to...

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MNSigned into law 05/2014P-12Innovative Technology Cooperative Centers
H.F. 2397
Article 3
Section 23, Subd 1: Allows two or more school districts to enter into an agreement to establish an innovative cooperative center to provide for technology and other educational services upon the majority vote of each district's school board. Allows t...

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MNSigned into law 05/2014P-12Nontraditional Learning Opportunities
H.F. 2397
Article 3
Section 29: Encourages schools districts to provide nontraditional learning opportunities for students (magnet schools, language immersion programs, project-based learning, career and technical education, etc.) to strengthen the alignment between car...

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MNSigned into law 05/2014P-12Diplomas and Educational Cooperatives
H.F. 2397
Article 3
Section 22: Allows students who complete an area learning center program to receive a diploma from an intermediate school district (a special school district created by two or more school districts to provide vocational or special education services ...

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COSigned into law 03/2014P-12Authorizing Multi-district Administrative Units
H.B. 1208
Alignes statute with current practice. Defines a "multi-district administrative unit" as a group of school districts that did not form a Board of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES), but were parties to an agreement existing on January 1, 2011, to jointly...

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NYVetoed 11/2013P-12Leasing of Real Property by Boards of Cooperative Educational Services
S.B. 1190
Relates to the leasing of real property by boards of cooperative educational services (BOCES). Extends maximum duration of BOCES leasing agreements from 10 to 20 years. http://assembly.state.ny.us/leg/?default_fld=%0D%0A&bn=S01190&term=&Summary=Y&Memo=Y&Text=Y...

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ORSigned into law 08/2013P-12Flexible Spending for Regional Education Districts
H.B. 3401
Provides regional education districts the opportunity to apply to the state for greater flexibility in the way that they expend funds starting with the 2014-2015 school year. Directs the the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representativ...

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NYSigned into law 07/2013P-12BOCES Contracts with Public Libraries for High-Speed Telecommunications Services
A.B. 1398
Authorizes boards of cooperative educational services (BOCES) to enter into contracts with public libraries for high-speed telecommunications services. Requires that any such proposed contract be approved by the commissioner of education. http://assembly.state...

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IASigned into law 05/2013P-12Administrative Expenditures
HF 454 - Section 273.13
Prohibits an area education agency's or a district's general fund from exceeding five percent of its general fund.
http://coolice.legis.iowa.gov/linc/85/external/govbills/HF454.pdf...

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MNSigned into law 05/2013P-12Regional Centers of Excellence
H.F. 630
Allows for regional centers of excellence, which will help school districts and charter schools implement research-based interventions and practices to increase student achievement. Provides that centers must develop partnerships with local and regional servi...

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AKSigned into law 04/2013P-12Election of an Advisory School Board
H.B. 104
Amends existing law so that the lieutenant governor may provide for the election of an advisory school board established under AS 14.08.115. An election conducted under this subsection shall be held on the first Tuesday in October. The lieutenant governor may ...

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COSigned into law 03/2013P-12Designate BOCES As Local Education Agencies
S.B. 2
Allows a board of cooperative services (BOCES) to act as a local education agency for one or more members that apply for, receive, or administer a federal or state grant (with the exception of federal formula grant monies, unless allowed by ESEA. Authorizes a ...

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COSigned into law 03/2013P-12Electronic Participation in Local Board Meetings
S.B. 15
Allows a district board of education or board of cooperative services (BOCES) to adopt a policy authorizing members to participate electronically in board meetings. But a member who is participating electronically cannot participate in an executive session of ...

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CASigned into law 09/2012P-12Members of County Boards of Education
A.B. 1662
From bill summary: Provides that any employee of a school district that is within the jurisdiction of the county board of education is ineligible to be a member of the county board of education. http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/pub/11-12/bill/asm/ab_1651-1700/ab_1662...

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CASigned into law 09/2012P-12Districts Receiving Emergency Apportionments
A.B. 2279
Amends conditions under which a trustee and necessary staff appointed to a district receiving an emergency apportionment must serve (a trustee must be appointed to a district by the superintendent of public instruction if the district board requests an emergen...

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CASigned into law 09/2012P-12Authority of a County Superintendent to Change a District's Fiscal Certification
A.B. 2662 - Authority of a County Superintendent to Change a District's Fiscal Certification
From bill summary: Permits a county superintendent of schools to change a district's certification (that it can meet its financial obligations for the remainder of the fiscal year and for the subsequent fiscal year) from qualified to negative if it is determin...

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NYSigned into law 08/2012P-12BOCES Contracts with Out-of-State Districts
A.B. 10205
Permits boards of cooperative educational services (BOCES) to enter into contracts of up to two years with out-of-state districts for special education and/or career/technical education services, or for the use of existing products that demonstrate how to map ...

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ILSigned into law 06/2012P-12Consolidation of Educational Service Regions
S.B. 2706
Requires that, after July 1, 2015, each educational service region contain at least 61,000 inhabitants (previously at least 43,000). Provides that before June 30, 2013, regions may be consolidated voluntarily under statutory provisions or by joint resolution o...

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OHSigned into law 06/2012P-12Educational Service Centers
S.B. 316 - Educational Service Centers
Repeals provision that if an educational service center governing board acquired, leased, purchased, or entered into a contract to purchase, lease, or sell office or classroom space, the board of county
commissioners has no obligation to provide and equip offi...

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OHSigned into law 06/2012P-12Offices of the Educational Service Center Superintendent and Governing Board
S.B. 316 - Offices of the Educational Service Center Superintendent and Governing Board
Repeals section 3319.19 of the revised code, which provided relative to the offices of the superintendent and governing board of an educational service center. Page 256 of 401: http://www.legislature.state.oh.us/BillText129/129_SB_316_EN_N.pdf...

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GASigned into law 04/2012P-12Legal Status of Regional Educational Service Agencies
H.B. 706 - Legal Status of Regional Educational Service Agencies
Clarifies the legal status of regional educational service agencies, to provide that regional educational service agencies are not state agencies but must be considered local units of administration. Page 6 of 11: http://www.legis.ga.gov/Legislation/20112012/1...

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NYSigned into law 03/2012P-12BOCES Contracts to Provide Special Education Services
A.B. 9057 - BOCES Contracts to Provide Special Education Services
Part K, Section 1: Authorizes a board of cooperative educational services (BOCES) to enter into contracts with the commissioner of the office of children and family services to provide for children in the office's custody any special education programs and rel...

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+ Governance--School Boards
+ Governance--School Boards--Training
+ Governance--Site-Based Management
+ Governance--State Boards/Chiefs/Agencies
+ Health
+ Health--Child Abuse
+ Health--Mental Health
+ Health--Nutrition
+ Health--School Based Clinics or School Nurses
+ Health--Suicide Prevention
+ Health--Teen Pregnancy
+ High School
+ High School--Advanced Placement
+ High School--College Readiness
+ High School--Credit Recovery
+ High School--Dropout Rates/Graduation Rates
+ High School--Dual/Concurrent Enrollment
+ High School--Early Colleges/Middle Colleges
+ High School--Exit Exams
+ High School--GED (General Education Development)
+ High School--Graduation Requirements
+ Instructional Approaches
+ Instructional Approaches--Constructivism
+ Instructional Approaches--Grading Practices
+ Instructional Approaches--Homeschooling
+ Instructional Approaches--Homework/Study Skills
+ Instructional Approaches--Official English
+ Instructional Approaches--Problem Based Learning
+ Instructional Approaches--Single-Sex Education
+ Instructional Approaches--Teaching Across Disciplines
+ Instructional Approaches--Time/Time on Task
+ Instructional Approaches--Tracking/Ability Grouping
+ Integrated Services/Full-Service Schools
+ International Baccalaureate
+ International Benchmarking
+ Leadership
+ Leadership--District Superintendent
+ Leadership--District Superintendent--Compensation and Diversified Pay
+ Leadership--Principal/School Leadership
+ Leadership--Principal/School Leadership--Certification and Licensure
+ Leadership--Principal/School Leadership--Compensation and Diversified Pay
+ Leadership--Principal/School Leadership--Evaluation and Effectiveness
+ Leadership--Principal/School Leadership--Induction Programs and Mentoring
+ Leadership--Principal/School Leadership--Preparation
+ Leadership--Principal/School Leadership--Preparation--Alternative
+ Leadership--Principal/School Leadership--Professional Development
+ Leadership--Principal/School Leadership--Recruitment and Retention
+ Leadership--Principal/School Leadership--Tenure
+ Mentoring/Tutoring
+ Middle School
+ Minority/Diversity Issues
+ Minority/Diversity Issues--African American
+ Minority/Diversity Issues--American Indian / Alaska Native / Native Hawaiian
+ Minority/Diversity Issues--Hispanic
+ No Child Left Behind
+ No Child Left Behind--Adequate Yearly Progress
+ No Child Left Behind--Assessment
+ No Child Left Behind--Choice/Transfer
+ No Child Left Behind--Consequences for Schools
+ No Child Left Behind--Finance
+ No Child Left Behind--Parent Involvement
+ No Child Left Behind--Reauthorization Issues/Waivers
+ No Child Left Behind--Report Cards
+ No Child Left Behind--School Support
+ No Child Left Behind--Special Populations
+ No Child Left Behind--Supplemental Services
+ Online Learning--Digital/Blended Learning
+ Online Learning--Virtual Schools/Courses
+ P-16 or P-20
+ P-3
+ P-3 Brain Development
+ P-3 Child Care
+ P-3 Content Standards and Assessment
+ P-3 Data Systems
+ P-3 Early Intervention (0-3)
+ P-3 English Language Learners (ELL)
+ P-3 Ensuring Quality
+ P-3 Evaluation/Economic Benefits
+ P-3 Finance
+ P-3 Governance
+ P-3 Grades 1-3
+ P-3 Health and Mental Health
+ P-3 Kindergarten
+ P-3 Kindergarten--Full-Day Kindergarten
+ P-3 Parent Engagement
+ P-3 Preschool
+ P-3 Public/Private Partnerships
+ P-3 Special Ed./Inclusion
+ P-3 Teaching Quality/Professional Development
+ P-3 Technology
+ Parent/Family
+ Parent/Family--Parent Rights
+ Parent/Family--Research
+ Partnerships--University/School
+ Postsecondary
+ Postsecondary Academic Affairs--AP/IB/Dual Credit
+ Postsecondary Academic Affairs--Competency-Based/PLA
+ Postsecondary Academic Affairs--Developmental/Remediation/Placement
+ Postsecondary Academic Affairs--Transfer/Articulation
+ Postsecondary Accountability
+ Postsecondary Accountability--Accreditation
+ Postsecondary Accountability--Diploma Mills
+ Postsecondary Accountability--Student Learning
+ Postsecondary Affordability
+ Postsecondary Affordability--Financial Aid
+ Postsecondary Affordability--Textbooks
+ Postsecondary Affordability--Tuition/Fees
+ Postsecondary Affordability--Tuition/Fees--Prepd/College Savings Plans
+ Postsecondary Affordability--Tuition/Fees--Undocumented Immigrants
+ Postsecondary Campus Safety/Sexual Assault
+ Postsecondary Faculty
+ Postsecondary Faculty--Compensation
+ Postsecondary Faculty--Intellectual Property
+ Postsecondary Faculty--Teaching Assistants
+ Postsecondary Faculty--Tenure
+ Postsecondary Finance
+ Postsecondary Finance--Efficiencies
+ Postsecondary Finance--Facilities
+ Postsecondary Finance--Performance-Based Funding
+ Postsecondary Finance--Revenue and Expenditures
+ Postsecondary Governance and Structures
+ Postsecondary Governance and Structures--Administrative/Leadership Issues
+ Postsecondary Governance and Structures--Licensing/Program Review and Approval
+ Postsecondary Governance and Structures--Master Plans/State Plans
+ Postsecondary Governance and Structures--State Executives/State Agencies
+ Postsecondary Institutions
+ Postsecondary Institutions--Community/Technical Colleges
+ Postsecondary Institutions--For-Profit/Proprietary
+ Postsecondary Institutions--Four-Year Baccalaureate
+ Postsecondary Institutions--HBCUs/Minority-Serving Institutions
+ Postsecondary Institutions--Private/Independent
+ Postsecondary Online Instruction
+ Postsecondary Participation
+ Postsecondary Participation--Access/Outreach
+ Postsecondary Participation--Admissions/Coursework Requirements
+ Postsecondary Participation--Affirmative Action
+ Postsecondary Students
+ Postsecondary Students--Adults
+ Postsecondary Students--Disabilities/Special Needs
+ Postsecondary Students--Foster Youth
+ Postsecondary Students--Gender
+ Postsecondary Students--Graduate/Professional
+ Postsecondary Students--International
+ Postsecondary Students--Low-Income
+ Postsecondary Students--Military
+ Postsecondary Students--Minority
+ Postsecondary Success
+ Postsecondary Success--Completion
+ Postsecondary Success--Full-Time Incentives
+ Postsecondary Success--Retention/Persistence
+ Private Schools
+ Privatization
+ Privatization--Education Management Organizations (EMOs)
+ Promising Practices
+ Promotion/Retention
+ Public Involvement
+ Purposes of Public Education
+ Reading/Literacy
+ Reading/Literacy--Adult Literacy
+ Religion
+ Religion--Prayer/Meditation
+ Religion--Scientific Creationism (Evolution)
+ Remediation (K-12)
+ Rural
+ Scheduling/School Calendar
+ Scheduling/School Calendar--Day/Class Length
+ Scheduling/School Calendar--Extended Day Programs
+ Scheduling/School Calendar--Summer School
+ Scheduling/School Calendar--Week
+ Scheduling/School Calendar--Year
+ Scheduling/School Calendar--Year Round
+ School Climate/Culture
+ School Safety
+ School Safety--Bullying Prevention/Conflict Resolution
+ School Safety--Corporal Punishment
+ School Safety--Discipline/Code of Conduct
+ School Safety--Emergency Preparedness
+ School Safety--Expulsion/Suspension
+ School Safety--No Child Left Behind--Safe Schools
+ School Safety--Sexual Harassment and Assault
+ School Safety--Special Education
+ School Safety--Uniforms/Dress Codes
+ School/District Structure/Operations
+ School/District Structure/Operations--District Consolidation/Deconsolidation
+ School/District Structure/Operations--District Size
+ School/District Structure/Operations--Facilities
+ School/District Structure/Operations--Food Service
+ School/District Structure/Operations--Libraries
+ School/District Structure/Operations--Org. (K-3/K-8 etc.)
+ School/District Structure/Operations--Personnel (Non-Teaching)
+ School/District Structure/Operations--School Size
+ School/District Structure/Operations--Shared Services
+ School/District Structure/Operations--Staffing Ratios
+ School/District Structure/Operations--Transportation
+ Service-Learning
+ Social/Emotional Learning and Non-Cognitive Skills
+ Special Education
+ Special Education--Federal Law/Regulations
+ Special Education--Finance
+ Special Education--Inclusion (Mainstreaming)
+ Special Education--Placement
+ Special Education--Transition
+ Special Populations
+ Special Populations--Corrections Education
+ Special Populations--Foster Care
+ Special Populations--Gifted and Talented
+ Special Populations--Homeless Education
+ Special Populations--Immigrant Education
+ Special Populations--Migrant Education
+ Special Populations--Military
+ Standards
+ Standards--Implementation
+ State Comparisons/Statistics
+ State Longitudinal Data Systems
+ State Policymaking
+ State Policymaking--Ballot Questions
+ State Policymaking--Constitutional Clauses
+ State Policymaking--Task Forces/Commissions
+ STEM
+ Student Achievement
+ Student Achievement--Closing the Achievement Gap
+ Student Surveys
+ Students
+ Students--Employment
+ Students--Incentives
+ Students--K-12 Exchange Students
+ Students--Mobility
+ Students--Records/Rights
+ Teaching Quality
+ Teaching Quality--Certification and Licensure
+ Teaching Quality--Certification and Licensure--Alternative
+ Teaching Quality--Certification and Licensure--Assessment
+ Teaching Quality--Certification and Licensure--Assignment
+ Teaching Quality--Certification and Licensure--Highly Qualified Teachers
+ Teaching Quality--Certification and Licensure--Natl. Bd. for Prof. Teach. Stds.
+ Teaching Quality--Certification and Licensure--Special Education
+ Teaching Quality--Certification and Licensure--State Prof. Standards Bds.
+ Teaching Quality--Certification and Licensure--Substitute Teachers
+ Teaching Quality--Compensation and Diversified Pay
+ Teaching Quality--Compensation and Diversified Pay--Pay-for-Performance
+ Teaching Quality--Compensation and Diversified Pay--Retirement/Benefits
+ Teaching Quality--Evaluation and Effectiveness
+ Teaching Quality--Induction Programs and Mentoring
+ Teaching Quality--Paraprofessionals
+ Teaching Quality--Preparation
+ Teaching Quality--Professional Development
+ Teaching Quality--Recruitment and Retention
+ Teaching Quality--Recruitment and Retention--At-Risk Schools
+ Teaching Quality--Recruitment and Retention--High-Needs Subjects
+ Teaching Quality--Reduction in Force
+ Teaching Quality--Teacher Attitudes
+ Teaching Quality--Teacher Contracts (Not Tenure)
+ Teaching Quality--Teacher Rights
+ Teaching Quality--Tenure or Continuing Contract
+ Teaching Quality--Unions/Collective Bargaining
+ Teaching Quality--Unions/Collective Bargaining--Strikes
+ Teaching Quality--Working Conditions
+ Technology
+ Technology--Devices/Software/Hardware
+ Technology--Equitable Access
+ Technology--Funding Issues
+ Technology--Internet Safety
+ Technology--Research/Evaluation
+ Technology--Teacher/Faculty Training
+ Textbooks and Open Source
+ Urban
+ Urban--Change/Improvements
+ Urban--Governance
+ Whole-School Reform Models
+ Youth Engagement