From the ECS State Policy Database

Education Commission of the States • 700 Broadway, Suite 810 • Denver, CO 80203-3442 • 303.299.3600 • fax 303.296.8332 •

The following summary includes policies ECS has tracked in this database since 1994. This database is made possible by your state's fiscal support of the Education Commission of the States (ECS). Most entries are legislative, although rules/regulations and executive orders that make substantive changes are included. Every effort is made to collect the latest available version of policies; in some instances, recent changes might not be reflected. For expediency purposes minimal attention has been paid to style (capitalization, punctuation) and format. To view the documents, click on the blue triangle next to the topic of interest.

Please cite use of the database as: Education Commission of the States (ECS) State Policy Database, retrieved [date].

State Status/Date Level Summary
+ 21st Century Skills
+ Accountability
+ Accountability--Accreditation
+ Accountability--Measures/Indicators
+ Accountability--Reporting Results
+ Accountability--Rewards
+ Accountability--Sanctions/Interventions
+ Accountability--Sanctions/Interventions--Learnfare
+ Accountability--Sanctions/Interventions--No Pass No Drive
+ Accountability--Sanctions/Interventions--No Pass No Play
+ Accountability--Sanctions/Interventions--Takeovers
+ Accountability--School Improvement
+ Adult Basic Education
+ Assessment
+ Assessment--Accommodations
+ Assessment--College Entrance Exams
+ Assessment--Computer Based
+ Assessment--End-of-Course
+ Assessment--Formative/Interim
+ Assessment--NAEP (NAEP Results and NAEP Organization)
+ Assessment--Performance Based/Portfolio
+ Assessment--Value Added
+ At-Risk (incl. Dropout Prevention)
+ At-Risk (incl. Dropout Prevention)--Alternative Education
+ At-Risk (incl. Dropout Prevention)--Drugs/Alcohol
+ Athletics/Extracurricular Activities
+ Attendance
+ Attendance--Compulsory
+ Attendance--Statutory Ages (Upper and Lower)
+ Attendance--Truancy/Chronic Absence
+ Background Checks
+ Brain Research
+ Business Involvement
+ Career/Technical Education
+ Career/Technical Education--Career Academies/Apprenticeship
+ Cheating
+ Choice of Schools
+ Choice of Schools--Charter Schools
+ Choice of Schools--Charter Schools--Charter Districts
+ Choice of Schools--Charter Schools--Closings
+ Choice of Schools--Charter Schools--Cyber Charters
+ Choice of Schools--Charter Schools--Finance
+ Choice of Schools--Charter Schools--Research
+ Choice of Schools--Choice/Open Enrollment
+ Choice of Schools--Innovation Schools
+ Choice of Schools--Magnet or Specialized Schools
+ Choice of Schools--Tax Credits
+ Choice of Schools--Vouchers
+ Choice of Schools--Vouchers--Privately Funded
+ Civic Education
+ Civic Education--Character Education
+ Civic Education--Civic Knowledge and Literacy
+ Civic Education--Curriculum/Standards
+ Civic Education--Pledge of Allegiance
+ Class Size
+ Common Core Standards and Assessments
+ Competency-Based Education (K-12)
+ Counseling/Guidance
+ Curriculum
+ Curriculum--Alignment
+ Curriculum--Arts Education
+ Curriculum--Censorship
+ Curriculum--Computer Science
+ Curriculum--Core Curriculum
+ Curriculum--Drivers Education
+ Curriculum--Environmental Education
+ Curriculum--Excusal
+ Curriculum--Family Living Education
+ Curriculum--Financial Literacy/Economics Ed.
+ Curriculum--Foreign Language/Sign Language
+ Curriculum--Geography Education
+ Curriculum--Health/Nutrition Education
+ Curriculum--Home Economics
+ Curriculum--International Education
+ Curriculum--Language Arts
+ Curriculum--Language Arts--Writing/Spelling
+ Curriculum--Mathematics
+ Curriculum--Multicultural
+ Curriculum--Physical Education
+ Curriculum--Science
+ Curriculum--Sex Education
+ Curriculum--Social Studies/History
+ Data-Driven Improvement
+ Demographics
+ Demographics--Condition of Children/Adults
+ Demographics--Enrollments
+ Desegregation
+ Economic/Workforce Development
+ Economic/Workforce Development--Value of an Education
+ Education Research
+ English Language Learner/Bilingual
+ Equity
+ Federal
+ Finance
+ Finance--Adequacy/Core Cost
+ Finance--Aid to Private Schools
+ Finance--Bonds
+ Finance--District
+ Finance--Does Money Matter?
+ Finance--Equity
+ Finance--Facilities
+ Finance--Federal
+ Finance--Funding Formulas
+ Finance--Litigation
+ Finance--Local Foundations/Funds
+ Finance--Lotteries
+ Finance--Performance Funding
+ Finance--Private Giving
+ Finance--Resource Efficiency
+ Finance--State Budgets/Expenditures
+ Finance--Student Fees
+ Finance--Taxes/Revenues
+ Finance--Taxes/Revenues--Alternative Revenues
+ Governance
+ Governance--Deregulation/Waivers/Home Rule
+ Governance--Ethics/Conflict of Interest
+ Governance--Federalism
+ Governance--Mandates
+ Governance--Regional Entities
+ Governance--School Boards
+ Governance--School Boards--Training
+ Governance--Site-Based Management
+ Governance--State Boards/Chiefs/Agencies
+ Health
+ Health--Child Abuse
+ Health--Mental Health
+ Health--Nutrition
+ Health--School Based Clinics or School Nurses
+ Health--Suicide Prevention
+ Health--Teen Pregnancy
+ High School
+ High School--Advanced Placement
+ High School--College Readiness
+ High School--Credit Recovery
+ High School--Dropout Rates/Graduation Rates
+ High School--Dual/Concurrent Enrollment
+ High School--Early Colleges/Middle Colleges
+ High School--Exit Exams
+ High School--GED (General Education Development)
+ High School--Graduation Requirements
+ Instructional Approaches
+ Instructional Approaches--Constructivism
+ Instructional Approaches--Grading Practices
+ Instructional Approaches--Homeschooling
+ Instructional Approaches--Homework/Study Skills
+ Instructional Approaches--Official English
+ Instructional Approaches--Problem Based Learning
+ Instructional Approaches--Single-Sex Education
+ Instructional Approaches--Teaching Across Disciplines
+ Instructional Approaches--Time/Time on Task
+ Instructional Approaches--Tracking/Ability Grouping
+ Integrated Services/Full-Service Schools
+ International Baccalaureate
+ International Benchmarking
+ Leadership
+ Leadership--District Superintendent
+ Leadership--District Superintendent--Compensation and Diversified Pay
+ Leadership--Principal/School Leadership
+ Leadership--Principal/School Leadership--Certification and Licensure
+ Leadership--Principal/School Leadership--Compensation and Diversified Pay
+ Leadership--Principal/School Leadership--Evaluation and Effectiveness
+ Leadership--Principal/School Leadership--Induction Programs and Mentoring
+ Leadership--Principal/School Leadership--Preparation
+ Leadership--Principal/School Leadership--Preparation--Alternative
+ Leadership--Principal/School Leadership--Professional Development
+ Leadership--Principal/School Leadership--Recruitment and Retention
+ Leadership--Principal/School Leadership--Tenure
+ Mentoring/Tutoring
+ Middle School
+ Minority/Diversity Issues
+ Minority/Diversity Issues--African American
+ Minority/Diversity Issues--American Indian / Alaska Native / Native Hawaiian
+ Minority/Diversity Issues--Hispanic
+ No Child Left Behind
+ No Child Left Behind--Adequate Yearly Progress
+ No Child Left Behind--Assessment
+ No Child Left Behind--Choice/Transfer
+ No Child Left Behind--Consequences for Schools
+ No Child Left Behind--Finance
+ No Child Left Behind--Parent Involvement
+ No Child Left Behind--Reauthorization Issues/Waivers
+ No Child Left Behind--Report Cards
+ No Child Left Behind--School Support
+ No Child Left Behind--Special Populations
+ No Child Left Behind--Supplemental Services
+ Online Learning--Digital/Blended Learning
+ Online Learning--Virtual Schools/Courses
+ P-16 or P-20
+ P-3
+ P-3 Brain Development
+ P-3 Child Care
+ P-3 Content Standards and Assessment
+ P-3 Data Systems
+ P-3 Early Intervention (0-3)
+ P-3 English Language Learners (ELL)
+ P-3 Ensuring Quality
+ P-3 Evaluation/Economic Benefits
+ P-3 Finance
+ P-3 Governance
+ P-3 Grades 1-3
+ P-3 Health and Mental Health
+ P-3 Kindergarten
+ P-3 Kindergarten--Full-Day Kindergarten
+ P-3 Parent Engagement
+ P-3 Preschool
+ P-3 Public/Private Partnerships
+ P-3 Special Ed./Inclusion
+ P-3 Teaching Quality/Professional Development
+ P-3 Technology
+ Parent/Family
+ Parent/Family--Parent Rights
+ Parent/Family--Research
+ Partnerships--University/School
+ Postsecondary
+ Postsecondary Academic Affairs--AP/IB/Dual Credit/etc.
+ Postsecondary Academic Affairs--Competency-Based/PLA
+ Postsecondary Academic Affairs--Developmental/Remediation/Placement
+ Postsecondary Academic Affairs--Transfer/Articulation
+ Postsecondary Accountability
+ Postsecondary Accountability--Accreditation
+ Postsecondary Accountability--Diploma Mills
+ Postsecondary Accountability--Licensing/Program Review and Approval
+ Postsecondary Accountability--Student Learning
+ Postsecondary Affordability
+ Postsecondary Affordability--Financial Aid
+ Postsecondary Affordability--Textbooks
+ Postsecondary Affordability--Tuition/Fees
+ Postsecondary Affordability--Tuition/Fees--Prepd/College Savings Plans
+ Postsecondary Affordability--Tuition/Fees--Undocumented Immigrants
+ Postsecondary Faculty
+ Postsecondary Faculty--Compensation
+ Postsecondary Faculty--Intellectual Property
+ Postsecondary Faculty--Teaching Assistants
+ Postsecondary Faculty--Tenure
+ Postsecondary Finance
+ Postsecondary Finance--Efficiencies
+ Postsecondary Finance--Facilities
+ Postsecondary Finance--Performance-Based Funding
+ Postsecondary Finance--Revenue and Expenditures
+ Postsecondary Governance and Structures
+ Postsecondary Governance and Structures--Administrative/Leadership Issues
+ Postsecondary Governance and Structures--Master Plans/State Plans
+ Postsecondary Governance and Structures--State Executives/State Agencies
+ Postsecondary Institutions
+ Postsecondary Institutions--Community/Technical Colleges
+ Postsecondary Institutions--For-Profit/Proprietary
+ Postsecondary Institutions--Four-Year Baccalaureate
+ Postsecondary Institutions--HBCUs/Minority-Serving Institutions
+ Postsecondary Institutions--Private/Independent
+ Postsecondary Online Instruction
+ Postsecondary Participation
+ Postsecondary Participation--Access/Outreach
+ Postsecondary Participation--Admissions/Coursework Requirements
+ Postsecondary Participation--Affirmative Action
+ Postsecondary Students
+ Postsecondary Students--Adults
+ Postsecondary Students--Disabilities/Special Needs
+ Postsecondary Students--Disabled
+ Postsecondary Students--Foster Youth
+ Postsecondary Students--Gender
+ Postsecondary Students--Graduate/Professional
+ Postsecondary Students--International
+ Postsecondary Students--Low-Income
+ Postsecondary Students--Military
+ Postsecondary Students--Minority
+ Postsecondary Success
+ Postsecondary Success--Completion
+ Postsecondary Success--Retention/Persistence
+ Private Schools
+ Privatization
+ Privatization--Education Management Organizations (EMOs)
+ Promising Practices
+ Promotion/Retention
+ Public Involvement
+ Purposes of Public Education
+ Reading/Literacy
+ Reading/Literacy--Adult Literacy
+ Religion
+ Religion--Prayer/Meditation
+ Religion--Scientific Creationism (Evolution)
+ Remediation (K-12)
+ Rural
+ Scheduling/School Calendar
+ Scheduling/School Calendar--Day/Class Length
+ Scheduling/School Calendar--Extended Day Programs
+ Scheduling/School Calendar--Summer School
+ Scheduling/School Calendar--Week
+ Scheduling/School Calendar--Year
+ Scheduling/School Calendar--Year Round
+ School Climate/Culture
+ School Safety
+ School Safety--Bullying Prevention/Conflict Resolution
+ School Safety--Code of Conduct
+ School Safety--Corporal Punishment
+ School Safety--Emergency Preparedness
+ School Safety--Expulsion/Suspension
- School Safety--No Child Left Behind--Safe Schools
NYSigned into law 07/2009P-12Date of Effectiveness of ESEA/NCLB Provisions
A.B. 8135
Amends chapter 425 of the laws of 2002, amending the education law relating to the provision of supplemental educational services, attendance at a safe public school and the suspension of pupils who bring a firearm to or possess a firearm at a school; amends c...

NYSigned into law 06/2008P-12Extension of NCLB Provisions
S.B. 7672
Extends the sunset date to June 30, 2009 on provisions related to supplemental educational services, attendance at a safe public school and the suspension of pupils who bring a firearm to or possess a firearm at school; relates to implementation of the No Chil...

MDAdopted 05/2008P-12Kindergarten Age Eligibility
COMAR 13A.08.01.01
Provides for transfers to public kindergarten of age- eligible kindergarten students attending nonpublic kindergarten programs.
Unsafe School Transfer Policy.
A. Each local school system shall allow a student attending a public elementary or secondary school...

CASigned into law 09/2007P-12Safety/student discipline
A.B. 394
Requires the Department of Education to monitor adherence to the antidiscrimination and antiharassment requirements as part of its regular monitoring and review of local educational agencies and to assess whether schools have done certain things, including, am...

NYSigned into law 07/2007P-12No Child Left Behind
S.B. 5747
Relates to the provision of supplemental educational services, attendance at a safe public school, the suspension of pupils who bring a firearm to or possess a firearm at a school (chapter 425 of the laws of 2002) and the education law relating to implementati...

NYAdopted 06/2006P-12Uniform Violent and Disruptive Incident Reporting
Title 8 NYCRR section 100.2(gg)
Provides a ranking, standard for reporting, and more concise definition of reportable offenses as required by the uniform violent and school districts, BOCES, charter schools, and country vocational education andextension boards. Establishes the use of a schoo...

INSigned into law 03/2006P-12Pupil Counts
S.B. 173
Requires each school corporation (district) to conduct an informational count on May 1, 2007, May 1, 2008, and May 1, 2009 -- in the same manner and with the same standards as eligible pupils are counted to determine current ADM. The department must report the...

COVetoed 06/2005P-12School Safety and Accountability Reports Content/Design/Layout
S.B. 214 (Section 3)
Requires the department to convene a working group of specified members to evaluate the current rules, definitions and reporting of incidents pertaining to school safety. Requires the working group to submit a report of its findings to the state by November 20...

NYSigned into law 06/2005P-12Safe Schools and Supplemental Services
S.B. 5415
AN ACT to amend chapter 425 of the laws of 2002, amending the education law relating to the provision of supplemental educational services, attendance at a safe public school and the suspension of pupils who bring a firearm to or possess a firearm at a school ...

AZSigned into law 04/2005P-12School Accountability and Crime Reporting
S.B. 1044
Authorizes local boards to adopt guidelines for the standardization of the format of school accountability report cards required by section 15-746

Authorizes local bo...

CASigned into law 09/2004P-12School Safety Planning Requirements
A.B. 2525 (multiple provisions)
Authorizes the filing of a complaint, under the Uniform Complaint Procedures, of noncompliance with the school safety planning requirements of the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.

GAAdopted 08/2004P-12Student Discipline
GAC 160-4-8-.15
Clarifies rules regarding student discipline. Removes the requirement that the local board of education policies regarding the student learning environment, student behavior and discipline address all issues related to State Board of Education rules regarding ...

NMRule Adoption 08/2004P-12Public Education Department Administration
NMAC 6.19.3
6.19.3 NMAC establishes the definitions and requirements to implement the mandate of the No Child Left Behind Act that a student attending a persistently dangerous school, as determined by the state in consultation with a representative sample of local educati...

NMRule Adoption 08/2004P-12Persistently Dangerous Schools thru .8
Requires that students who become a victim of a violent offense be allowed to attend a safe public school within the district. NEW MEXICO REG 4170 (SN)...

MDVetoed 05/2004P-12Safe Schools Reporting Act
H.B. 740
Requires county boards of education to create a program for reporting incidents of harassment or intimidation against students attending public schools under the jurisdiction of the board; authorizes specified persons to file a report regarding incidents of ha...

WVto governor 03/2004P-12Discipline in the Public Schools
H.B. 4001 -- Multiple Sections
Makes each county board soley responsible for the administration of proper discipline in the public schools of the county. Each board is required to adopt policies consistent with Section 18A-5-1to govern disciplinary actions....

ARSigned into law 01/2004P-12Student Assessment and Educational Accountability Act of 2004 - Reporting
S.B. 33 §§ 1, 4, 5, 6
Amends Ark. Code § 6-15-404, adds 6-15-434, 6-15-1806, 6-15-1901, 6-15-1902, 6-15-1903 .Creates the Student Assessment and Educational Accountability act of 2003; requires the establishment of a reporting system of schools' academic performance on the state-ma...

ILSigned into law 12/2003P-12Unsafe Schools Choice Option
S.B. 1957
Amends the School Code. Makes a technical change in a Section concerning charter schools. Requires the State Board of Education to maintain data and publish a list of persistently dangerous schools on an annual basis.

DERule Adoption 08/2003P-12Gun Free School Act
14 DAC 603
Regulation 878 School District Compliance with the Gun Free School Act replaced with Regulation 603. Requires school districts to have a Gun Free Schools policy implementing the Gun Free Schools Act that now includes charter schools. Continues to contain repor...

DESigned into law 07/2003P-12Gun-Free Schools Act
S.B. 158
Relates to possession of a firearm or deadly weapon in a safe school and recreation zone. The federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) amended the Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994. The Gun Free Schools Act now requires that a state receiving federal educati...

GAAdopted 07/2003P-12Unsafe School Choice Option
GAC 160-4-8-.16
Establishes rules regarding "Unsafe School Choice Option" (USCO). Specifies a three- year process to declare a school as unsafe and an appeal procedure to the State Board of Education. Provides the process which victims of violent criminal offenses occurring a...

DERule Adoption 06/2003P-12Unsafe School Choice Option
14 DAC 608
Establishes rules requiring that a State Education Agency establish a State Unsafe School Choice Option (USCO) policy in order to receive funding under ESEA; identifies the conditions that must exist in order to identify persistently dangerous schools. Defines...

MDRule Adoption 06/2003P-12Definitions of "Persistently Dangerous School," "Violent Criminal Offense" and "Safe School"
COMAR 13A.08.01.18
Implements the Unsafe School Choice Option of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001.
A. In Regulations .19 and .20 of this chapter, the following terms have the meanings indicated.
B. Terms Defined.
(1) "Conviction of or adjudication of" means that the ...

MDRule Adoption 06/2003P-12Unsafe School Choice Transfer Policy
COMAR 13A.08.01.20
A. Each local school system shall allow a student attending a public elementary or secondary school to attend a safe public elementary or secondary school within the school system if the student:
(1) Attends a persistently dangerous public elementary or second...

MDRule Adoption 06/2003P-12Probationary and Persistently Dangerous School Designation
COMAR 13A.08.01.19
A. Probationary Status.
(1) The State Board of Education shall place on probationary status any school having each year for a period of 2 consecutive school years, the total number of student suspensions for more than 10 days or expulsions for any of the offen...

PARule Adoption 06/2003P-12Persistently Dangerous Schools
22 PA. CODE CH. 403
Establishes rules pertaining to compliance with the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. PENNSYLVANIA REG 3807 (SN) Defines violent criminal offense as any of the following offenses that are set forth in 18 Pa.C.S. (relating to Crimes Code): (i)  Kidnapping. (ii...

ARSigned into law 04/2003P-12Quality Education Act of 2003 - Safe Schools
H.B. 2697 §17 (Omnibus Bill)
Adds § 6-15-431. Creates the Unsafe School Choice Program required by No Child Left Behind; provides for transfer of students attending a persistently dangerous school and students who are victims of violent crimes. Requires the State Board of Education to ado...

NDSigned into law 04/2003P-12Student Transfers
H.B. 1086
A student's parent may apply to a contiguous school district for admission of the student at any time during the school year if: a. The student was a victim of violence occurring within the school in which the student was enrolled and the violence was document...

ALAdopted 03/2003P-12Persistently Dangerous Schools
AAC 290-3-1-.02(l)(e)
Establishes rules adding section (e) to the existing rule which will allow notification for schools that have been identified as persistently dangerous. ALABAMA REG 6102 (SN)

VASigned into law 03/2003P-12School Aulthorities Crime Reports
H.B. 2680
Clarifies and revises the requirements for principals' reports to local law enforcement of incidents occurring on school buses, school property or at school-sponsored activities by (i) restructuring the clusters of incidents to separate assault and assault and...

UTRule Adoption 02/2003P-12Persistently Dangerous Schools
Provides criteria and procedures designating schools as persistently dangerous and provides for parent notification and transfers for students if residents of a designated school or a victim of a specific violent criminal offense. UTAH REG 25965 (SN)...

TXActive 11/2002P-12Unsafe School Choice Option
During the 2002-2003 school year, the state, in consultation with a representative sample of LEAs, will develop criteria for identifying "persistently dangerous schools." (

VAActive 11/2002P-12Safe Schools
VA Code § 22.1-3.3
Whenever any student has been the victim of any crime against the person pursuant to Chapter 4 (§ 18.2-30 et seq.) of Title 18.2, and such crime was committed by another student attending classes in the school, or by any employee of the school board, or by any...

COActive 06/2002P-12Safe Schools
As a result of effective prevention and intervention methods, no school will be determined to be persistently dangerous. The performance target in future years will remain at zero. When persistently dangerous schools are identified, CDE will work with school(s...

+ School Safety--Sexual Harassment and Assault
+ School Safety--Special Education
+ School Safety--Uniforms/Dress Codes
+ School/District Structure/Operations
+ School/District Structure/Operations--District Consolidation/Deconsolidation
+ School/District Structure/Operations--District Size
+ School/District Structure/Operations--Facilities
+ School/District Structure/Operations--Food Service
+ School/District Structure/Operations--Libraries
+ School/District Structure/Operations--Org. (K-3/K-8 etc.)
+ School/District Structure/Operations--Personnel (Non-Teaching)
+ School/District Structure/Operations--School Size
+ School/District Structure/Operations--Shared Services
+ School/District Structure/Operations--Staffing Ratios
+ School/District Structure/Operations--Transportation
+ Service-Learning
+ Social/Emotional Learning and Non-Cognitive Skills
+ Special Education
+ Special Education--Federal Law/Regulations
+ Special Education--Finance
+ Special Education--Inclusion (Mainstreaming)
+ Special Education--Placement
+ Special Education--Transition
+ Special Populations
+ Special Populations--Corrections Education
+ Special Populations--Foster Care
+ Special Populations--Gifted and Talented
+ Special Populations--Homeless Education
+ Special Populations--Immigrant Education
+ Special Populations--Migrant Education
+ Special Populations--Military
+ Standards
+ Standards--Implementation
+ State Comparisons/Statistics
+ State Longitudinal Data Systems
+ State Policymaking
+ State Policymaking--Ballot Questions
+ State Policymaking--Constitutional Clauses
+ State Policymaking--Task Forces/Commissions
+ Student Achievement
+ Student Achievement--Closing the Achievement Gap
+ Student Surveys
+ Students
+ Students--Employment
+ Students--Incentives
+ Students--K-12 Exchange Students
+ Students--Mobility
+ Students--Records/Rights
+ Teaching Quality
+ Teaching Quality--Certification and Licensure
+ Teaching Quality--Certification and Licensure--Alternative
+ Teaching Quality--Certification and Licensure--Assignment
+ Teaching Quality--Certification and Licensure--Highly Qualified Teachers
+ Teaching Quality--Certification and Licensure--Natl. Bd. for Prof. Teach. Stds.
+ Teaching Quality--Certification and Licensure--Special Education
+ Teaching Quality--Certification and Licensure--State Prof. Standards Bds.
+ Teaching Quality--Certification and Licensure--Substitute Teachers
+ Teaching Quality--Compensation and Diversified Pay
+ Teaching Quality--Compensation and Diversified Pay--Pay-for-Performance
+ Teaching Quality--Compensation and Diversified Pay--Retirement/Benefits
+ Teaching Quality--Evaluation and Effectiveness
+ Teaching Quality--Induction Programs and Mentoring
+ Teaching Quality--Paraprofessionals
+ Teaching Quality--Preparation
+ Teaching Quality--Professional Development
+ Teaching Quality--Recruitment and Retention
+ Teaching Quality--Recruitment and Retention--At-Risk Schools
+ Teaching Quality--Recruitment and Retention--High-Needs Subjects
+ Teaching Quality--Reduction in Force
+ Teaching Quality--Teacher Attitudes
+ Teaching Quality--Teacher Contracts (Not Tenure)
+ Teaching Quality--Teacher Rights
+ Teaching Quality--Tenure or Continuing Contract
+ Teaching Quality--Unions/Collective Bargaining
+ Teaching Quality--Unions/Collective Bargaining--Strikes
+ Teaching Quality--Working Conditions
+ Technology
+ Technology--Computer Skills
+ Technology--Devices/Software/Hardware
+ Technology--Equitable Access
+ Technology--Funding Issues
+ Technology--Internet Safety
+ Technology--Research/Evaluation
+ Technology--Teacher/Faculty Training
+ Textbooks and Open Source
+ Urban
+ Urban--Change/Improvements
+ Urban--Governance
+ Whole-School Reform Models
+ Youth Engagement