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Document Number: 11193

Achievement at Whose Expense? A Literature Review of Test-Based Grade Retention Policies in U.S. Schools - Although some studies have documented average gains in academic achievement resulting from test-based retention, the author argues there is increasing evidence these gains have occurred by limiting the educational opportunities of the most vulnerable students. Short-term gains produced by test-based retention policies fade over time with students again fall behind but with a larger likelihood of dropping our of school. Instead he advocates for professional development and increased instruction time. (Andrew P. Huddleston, Education Policy Analysis Archives, April 2014)...

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