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Document Number: 5045

Balanced Leadership: What 30 Years of Research Tells Us About the Effect of Leadership on Student Achievement - TIMELESS. This report details the outcomes of a meta-analysis of research on the effect of principal leadership practices on student achievement. Some findings of this analysis are: (1) a significant, positive correlation exists between effective school leadership and student achievement; (2) 21 key leadership responsibilities are significantly correlated with higher student achievement; and (3) effective leaders know not only which school changes are most likely to improve student achievement, but also understand staff and community members' dispositions to change and tailor leadership practices accordingly. (Tim Waters, Robert J. Marzano and Brian McNulty, Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning, 2003)...

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