Document Number: 5066Knowing the Right Thing To Do: School Improvement and Performance-based Accountability - More often than not, schools labeled as low-performing do not fit the stereotype of failing schools, according to this report. The author argues that one of the problems in many struggling schools is that teachers are working hard but not teaching for meaning and learning. What is more, accountability systems do not take into consideration the sheer scale of the work that needs to be done, or the fact that periods of flat performance are natural and necessary components of the improvement process. Elmore identifies eight essential phases in the school improvement process and offers recommendations for policymakers' modifications to accountability systems to help underperforming schools improve. (Richard F. Elmore, NGA Center for Best Practices, August 2003)...