main
community
contact staff ecs twitter facebook
School SafetySelected Research & Readings (Additional Resources)
 
  SCHOOL SAFETY
 
What States Are Doing
Selected Research & Readings
Other Web Sites
 Bullying Prevention/Conflict Resolution
 Emergency Preparedness
 Expulsion/Suspension
 No Child Left Behind--Safe Schools
 Sexual Harassment and Assault
 Special Education
 Uniforms/Dress Codes
 




The Progress of Education Reform 1999-2001: Youth Violence MS Word PDF - Presents a look at three strategies that hold promise in addressing violent behavior – prenatal and infant care, small schools and service-learning. (Suzanne Weiss, The Progress of Education Reform, Education Commission of the States, vol. 1, no. 2, July-August 1999)...

Service-Learning: An Education Strategy for Preventing School Violence — Issue Paper MS Word - Rarely talked about is what is happening within young people that causes them to react with such negative emotion and antisocial behavior. Service-learning is one strategy that shows promise for creating a "culture of caring." (Carol W. Kinsley, Ann Southworth and Bruce O. Boston, Compact for Learning and Citizenship, Education Commission of the States, December 1999)...

School Safety and Violence: 1999 ECS National Forum Highlights MS Word - Highlights from the 1999 ECS National Forum and Annual Meeting, held July 11-14 in Denver, devoted three sessions to the issue of school safety and violence: Reducing Youth Violence Will Require 'Revolution' in Beliefs About Babies and Parents; Approaches to School Violence Run the Gamut; and School Violence Calls for Multiple Approaches. (Education Commission of the States, July 1999)...

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2012 - During the 2009-2010 school year, there were 1,396 homicides among school-age youth aged five to 18 of which 19 occurred at school, according to the annual federal report on school crime and safety. Among hundreds of factoids: Little change has been observed in the percentage of students reporting having been bullied between 2005 and 2011. Between 1995 and 2011, the percentage of students who reported being afraid of attack or harm at school decreased from 12% to 4%. More secondary teachers (8%) reported being threatened with injury than elementary school teachers (7%), but a greater percentage of elementary school teachers (5%) reported actually being attacked than secondary teachers (2%). Before printing, consider its length: 211 pages. (National Center for Education Statistics and Bureau of Justice Statistics, June 2013)...

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2011 - This is the 14th in a series of annual publications produced jointly by the U.S. Department of Education and the Bureau of Justice Statistics. The report covers topics such as teacher injury, victimization, bullying, school conditions, fights, weapons, availability and student use of drugs and alcohol, and student perceptions of personal safety at school. Indicators of crime and safety are compared across different population subgroups and over time. (Institute of Education Sciences, February 2012)...

Student Victimization in U.S. Schools: Results from the 2007 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey - The NCVS is the nation’s primary source of information on criminal victimization and the victims of crime in the United States. The SCS is a supplement to the NCVS that was created to collect nationallevel information about students ages 12 through 18 and school characteristics related to school crime. The first three administrations of the SCS were conducted in 1989, 1995, and 1999; since 1999, it has been conducted biennially. The survey is designed to assist policymakers, as well as researchers and practitioners at the federal, state, and local levels, in making informed decisions concerning crime in schools. (Jill Fleury Devoe, Lynn Bauer, and Monica Hill, National Center for Education Statistics, November 2011.)...

Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools, Findings from the School Survey on Crime and Safety: 2007-08 - This report presents findings on crime and violence in U.S. public schools, using data from the 2009–10 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS:2010). First administered in school year 1999–2000 and repeated in school years 2003–04, 2005–06, 2007–08, and 2009–10, SSOCS provides information on school crime-related topics from the perspective of schools. Developed and managed by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) within the Institute of Education Sciences and supported by the Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools of the U.S. Department of Education, SSOCS asks public school principals about the frequency of incidents, such as physical attacks, robberies, and thefts, in their schools. Portions of this survey also focus on school programs, disciplinary actions, and the policies implemented to prevent and reduce crime in schools. (Samantha Neiman and Monica R. Hill, National Center for Education Statistics, May 2009.)...

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2010 - This is the 13th in a series of annual publications produced jointly by the U.S. Department of Education and the Bureau of Justice Statistics. The report covers topics such as teacher injury, victimization, bullying, school conditions, fights, weapons, availability and student use of drugs and alcohol, and student perceptions of personal safety at school. Indicators of crime and safety are compared across different population subgroups and over time. (Institute for Education Sciences, November 2010)...

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2009 - Ensuring safer schools requires establishing good indicators of the current state of school crime and safety across the nation and regularly updating and monitoring these indicators. This report covers the range of issues associated with school crime and safety and compares across different population subgroups and over time. (Rachel Dinkes, Jana Kemp, Katrina Baum, Thomas Snyder, Center for Education Statistics/Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2009)...

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2008 - A joint effort by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the National Center for Education Statistics. This is the 11th in an annual series examining crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. It provides the most current detailed statistical information to inform the public on the nature of crime in schools. The report presents data on crime in school from the perspective of students, teachers, principals, and the general population from an array of sources. Data on crime away from school are presented to place school crime in the context of crime in the larger society. (Rachel Dinkes, Jana Kemp and Katrina Baum, National Center for Education Statistics, April 2009)...

Report to the President on Issues Raised by the Virginia Tech Tragedy - In the wake of the Virginia Tech shootings, a task force examined ways to ensure privacy and individual freedom,safety and security, and assisting those with mental health needs. The report includes recommended actions the federal government can take to support state and local communities and ensure that the federal government and federal law are not obstacles to achieving these goals. The recommended action are an attempt to frame the issues and identify tangible steps we can take over time to help prevent events like the Virginia Tech tragedy. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, June 2007)...

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2006 - The 9th in an annual series, this report presents the most recent data available on school crime and student safety. The indicators in this report are based on information drawn from a variety of independent data sources, including national surveys of students, teachers, and principals, and data collections from federal departments and agencies. (Rachel Dinkes, Emily Forrest Cataldi, Grace Kena and Katrina Baum, National Center for Education Statistics, December 2006) ...

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2005 - The 8th in an annual series, this report presents data on school crime and student safety in order to allow parents, school staff and policymakers to address school crime effectively. The report includes sections on: (1) violent deaths; (2) nonfatal student victimization; (3) nonfatal teacher victimization; (4) school environment; (5) fights, weapons and illegal substances; (6) fear and avoidance; and (7) discipline, safety and security measures. Results are disaggregated by multiple school and student characteristics. (Jill F. DeVoe, Katharin Peter, Margaret Noonan, Thomas D. Snyder and Katrina Baum, National Center for Education Statistics, November 2005)...

Violence in U.S. Public Schools: 2000 School Survey on Crime and Safety - This report contains a wealth of data on reported incidences of violence in U.S. public schools during the 1999-2000 school year. Information examined includes overall incidents of violence in public schools and the relationship between school characteristics and violence and serious violence. Selected findings: 71% of schools reported at least one violent incident, and 20% reported one or more serious violent incidents; as enrollment size increased, schools were more likely to report one or more violent or serious violent incidents; as the percentage of students who considered academics important increased, the likelihood of schools reporting a violent or serious violent incident decreased; and 7% of schools accounted for 50% of reported total violent incidents. (Amanda K. Miller and Kathryn Chandler, National Center for Education Statistics, October 2003)...

School Safety Threats Persist, Funding Decreasing: NASRO 2003 National School-Based Law Enforcement Survey - This national survey polled school-based police officers on such areas as school-related terrorism and school violence threats, terrorism and overall emergency preparedness, school crime reporting and underreporting, and budget/funding issues. Eighty-seven percent of the 728 respondents said they believed that the number of crimes on school campuses were underreported, while 85% said that proposed federal budget decreases in Safe and Drug Free Schools programs would result in less-safe schools. (Kenneth S. Trump, National Association of School Resource Officers, August 19, 2003)...

For Safety’s Sake - This article explores subtle violence occurring in our public schools. Examples include behaviors such as laughing at or not wanting to sit next to certain students. The author contends that this type of violence can be particularly harmful because it is hard to identify and difficult to stop. The author recommends ways to create an environment in which children can expect safety: (1) small schools; (2) a curriculum that addresses cruelty and victimization; (3) close observations of student interaction by adults in the school; and (4) communication between the home adults and school adults. (Deborah Meier, educational HORIZONS, Pi Lambda Theta, Fall 2004)...

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2004 - This report presents data on crime at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, principals and the general population. This report examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. Data on crime away from school also are presented to place school crime in the context of crime in the larger society. (Jill DeVoe, Katharin Peter, Phillip Kaufman, Amanda Miller, Margaret Noonan, Thomas Snyder and Katrina Baum, National Center for Education Statistics, November 2004)...

Violence-related Behaviors Among High School Students — United States, 1991-2003 - Researchers present 13-year national trends on the percentage of students who: (1) carried a weapon on at least one day during the 30 days before the survey or at least once during the 12 months before the survey; (2) participated in a physical fight or (3) were in a physical fight that resulted in injuries that had to be treated by a doctor or nurse. For the years 1993-2003, they also indicate the percentage of students who: (4) carried a weapon on school property on at least one day during the 30 days before the survey or (5) did not attend school on at least one day because they felt too unsafe or (6) were in at least one physical fight on school property in the 12 months before the survey or (7) were threatened or injured with a weapon on school property. Data on each of the seven areas are disaggregated by gender, race and grade (9-12). (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, July 2004)...

Teaching Interrupted: Do Discipline Policies in Today's Public Schools Foster the Common Good? - This report suggests that a handful of misbehaving students are making learning more challenging for everyone, and parents who threaten to sue schools that discipline their students are only making matters worse. Presenting the findings of surveys of 725 middle and high school teachers and 600 parents of middle and high school students nationwide, this report paints the picture of a modern-day school where teachers are disciplined or fear undergoing discipline for disciplining students. The results also cover respondents’ perceptions on the causes of student behavior problems, the best ways to discipline students and more. One finding: 82% of teachers and 74% of parents believe “parents’ failure to teach their children discipline” is the number one cause of students’ bad behavior in U.S. schools. (Public Agenda, May 2004)...

Behavior-Oriented Approaches To Reducing Youth Gun Violence - Advocacy groups on both sides of the gun issue frequently point to changing personal behavior – of both parents and children – as a key element in reducing gun violence among youth. Efforts to bring about these changes range from community-based campaigns, to laws and programs that encourage parents to store their guns safely, to educational initiatives that focus on keeping young children away from guns and encouraging youth to resolve disputes without violence. Unfortunately, these behavior-oriented programs have not shown great success in reducing youth gun violence. This article reviews the research surrounding behavioral approaches to gun violence prevention and highlights obstacles that hamper the effectiveness of these programs. (Marjorie S. Hardy, The Future of Children, vol. 12, no. 2, 2002)...

Students' Reports of School Crime: 1989 and 1995 - This report is the first focusing on data collected in the 1995 School Crime Supplement, an enhancement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The NCVS is an ongoing household survey that gathers information on the criminal victimization of household members age 12 and older. While this report does not cover all the items in the dataset, it covers those pertinent to school crime. These include: victimization, drug availability, street gangs and guns at school. In this report, victimization is in terms of prevalence as opposed to counts of events. In other words, the report focuses on the percent of students who have been victimized one or more times. (Kathryn A. Chandler, Christopher D. Chapman, Michael R. Rand and Bruce M. Taylor, National Center for Education Statistics, April 1998)...

Violence and Discipline Problems in U.S. Public Schools: 1996-97 - This report presents findings from the Principal/School Disciplinarian Survey on School Violence commissioned by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) to obtain current data on school violence and other discipline issues in our nation's public elementary and secondary schools. The survey requested information about (1) the actual number of specific crimes that had occurred at school during the 1996-97 academic year, (2) principals' perceptions about the seriousness of a variety of discipline issues at their schools, (3) the types of disciplinary actions schools took against students for some serious violations, and (4) the kinds of security measures and violence prevention programs that were in place in public schools. (Sheila Heaviside, Cassandra Rowand, Catrina Williams and Elizabeth Farris, NCES, March 1998)...

Every Child Learning: Safe and Supportive Schools - This report outlines four key elements to establish safe and supportive learning communities and includes recommendations for putting these elements into place in states, districts and schools across the nation. (Learning First Alliance, 2001)...

Student Discipline: Individuals With Disabilities Education Act - This survey examines the upshot of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act in relation to disciplinary action for disabled students and nondisabled students. Based on 272 middle school and high school respondents, the report states that special education students involved in serious misconduct are disciplined in a similar manner to regular education students. (General Accounting Office, January 2001)...

Preventing School Violence: Plenary Papers of the 1999 Conference on Criminal Justice Research and Evaluation Enhancing Policy and Practice - This collection of papers published by the National Institute of Justice examines school-community partnerships, research-based strategies and other promising approaches to preventing school violence. The papers convincingly demonstrate that preventing school violence is not the exclusive preserve of the criminal justice community. The resources of multiple research-based disciplines -- whether their province is human behavior or the workings of the mind or community health -- need to be tapped to find the path to an enduring solution. (Sheppard G. Kellam, Ron Prinz and Joseph F. Sheley, National Institute of Justice, May 2000)...

Discipline Procedures for Students with Disabilities - In response to the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), as well as recent state legislation on school safety, this guide provides technical assistance regarding the discipline of students with disabilities in accordance with laws of the State of New York, as well as interpretations of federal law. It provides an overview of the disciplinary process, guidelines for assessing and addressing behaviors, functional behavior assessments and intervention plans. The relationship between a student’s disability and behavior figures prominently into the picture and is presented. (Office of Vocational and Educational Services for Individuals with Disabilities, University of the State of New York, State Education Department, January 2001). ...

The Color of Discipline: Sources of Racial and Gender Disproportionality in School Punishment - Minority disproportionality in school discipline has been a concern for over 25 years. This report reviews the literature concerning disproportional discipline, and tests alternative hypotheses for African American overrepresentation in office referral, suspension and expulsion. (Russell J. Skiba, Robert S. Michael, Abra C. Nardo, and Reece L. Peterson, Safe and Responsive Schools at the Indiana Education Policy Center, June 2000) ...

Zero Tolerance, Zero Evidence: An Analysis of School Disciplinary Practice - The zero tolerance disciplinary approach has been widely implemented in response to perceptions of increased school violence. This review explores the controversies that appear to be inherent in the use of zero tolerance and explores the evidence concerning the effectiveness of zero tolerance in contributing toward school safety or reduced student disruption. (Russell Skiba, Safe and Responsive Schools at the Indiana Education Policy Center, August 2000) ...

Annual Report on School Safety: October 1998 - The data in this report show a decline in school crime and a reduction in the percentage of students carrying weapons to school. At the same time, the data indicate a substantial amount of crime, including violent crime, against both students and teachers. Steps for developing and implementing a comprehensive school safety plan are described in this report: (1) establish school-community partnerships; (2) identify and measure the problem; (3) set measurable goals and objectives; (4) identify appropriate research-based programs and strategies; (5) implement the comprehensive plan; (6) evaluate the plan; and (7) revise the plan on the basis of the evaluation. The report also provides information on what schools, students, parents, business leaders, law enforcement and juvenile justice agencies, and elected officials and government agencies can do to contribute to the creation of safer schools. Lastly, this report describes programs that are well designed and can be implemented in combinations to form a comprehensive school safety plan....

Predictors of Youth Violence - Twenty-two researchers worked for two years to analyze current research on risk and protective factors and the development of serious juvenile offenders. (U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, "Juvenile Justice Bulletin," April 2000) ...

Early Warning, Timely Response: A Guide to Safe Schools - This publication offers research-based practices designed to assist school communities identify warning signs early and develop prevention, intervention and crisis response plans. The guide includes sections on: (1) characteristics of a school that is safe and responsive to all children; (2) early warning signs; (3) getting help for troubled children; (4) developing a prevention and response plan; (5) responding to crisis; and (6) resources methodology, contributors and research support (U.S. Department of Education, 1998). ...

State-Level Strategies for School Safety and Crisis Preparedness - State officials can - and should - take a leadership role in providing support to local school districts for improving their school security and crisis preparedness measures. The organization's recommendations include, but are not limited to: (1) provide training programs for educators, school support staff, administrators and other elected officials on school security and crisis preparedness issues; (2) create and fund a state-level school safety center; and (3) improve school crime reporting requirements and related data collection (National School Safety and Security Services, 1999). ...


Selected Research & Readings Current

Print Friendly and PDF

4

Thank you, Issue Site Sponsors
pearson

 
Home  |  About ECS  |  Education Issues A-Z  | Research Studies  |  Reports & Databases  |  State Legislation  |  State Profiles  |  Projects & Institutes  |  Newsroom  |  Website User's Guide


Information provided by ECS combines the best of the most recent and useful research available. Should you have questions, please contact our Information Clearinghouse at 303.299.3675.

700 Broadway, #810 Denver, CO 80203-3442
Phone: 303.299.3600 | Fax: 303.296.8332
 
©2014 Education Commission of the States
www.ecs.org | ecs@ecs.org
Read our privacy policy