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State Procedural Due Process Provisions for Out-of-School Suspensions MS Word PDF - In its 1975 ruling on Goss v. Lopez, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that students had a right to due process protections under the U.S. Constitution for out-of-school suspensions that were less than 10 days. This ECS Highlights document summarizes a recent study by Perry Zirkel and Mark Covelle that examined state laws in the wake of the Goss decision. (Kyle Zinth, Education Commission of the States, May 2010)...

Are We Closing the School Discipline Gap? - An examination of suspension data from every district in the country finds a wide range of rates, but many districts are suspending one in 10 elementary school students and one in four high school students. Tremendous disparity exists in suspension risk by race, gender and disability status. The authors say this injustice extends not just to loss of instruction time, but to negative effects on graduation rates, learning environment and rates of juvenile crime and delinquency. (Daniel Losen, et al. Center for Civil Rights Remedies, February 2015) ...

Eliminating Excessive and Unfair Exclusionary Discipline in Schools: Policy Recommendations for Reducing Disparities - The achievement gap will never be closed until the discipline gap is closed, according to a panel that has been studying suspension/expulsion rates. They found students of color, especially African American students, and students with disabilities are suspended at hugely disproportionate rates. LGBT students also are over-represented. Further, disparities in suspension are worsening. When misbehavior does occur, they recommend restorative justice, and warn that putting police in schools is problematic. (Daniel Losen, Damon Hewitt and Ivory Toldson, Equity Project at University of Indiana, March 2014)...

Opportunities Suspended: The Disparate Impact of Disciplinary Exclusion from School - This is the first of a planned series of annual reports on "Suspended Education,” data and policy showing the frequency with which students of color and children with disabilities are excluded from schools at the federal, state and district levels. In this study the authors examine the use of suspension for African American and special education students and conclude that students who are barely maintaining a connection with their school often are pushed out. The authors point to an encouraging finding: hundreds of districts do not have highly differentiated suspension rates and/or use suspension only rarely. (Civil Rights Project, August 2012)...

Act Out, Get Out? Considering the Impact of School Discipline Practices in Massachusetts - A review of why discipline policies are necessary, laws governing these policies, and national research on the effects of disciplinary removal. (Rennie Center for Education Research and Policy, May 2010)...

Act Out, Get Out? Considering the Impact of School Discipline Practices in Massachusetts - The findings presented in this brief raise several concerns about school discipline policies and practices that must be examined if Massachusetts expects to drastically reduce its dropout rate and educate all of its students well. The Rennie Center hopes this report will spark the thoughtful discussion among policymakers, educators, parents and students that is necessary to ensure that all Massachusetts public school students are provided with to opportunity to reach their fullest potential. (Rennie Center for Education Research and Policy, May 2010)...

Education on Lockdown: The Schoolhouse to Jailhouse Track - School districts have recently teamed up with law enforcement to create a “schoolhouse to jailhouse track” by imposing a “double dose” of punishment – suspension or expulsion and a trip to the juvenile court – for one act of misconduct, frequently minor acts. This summary profiles three school districts operating such policies in addition to discussing the evolution of zero-tolerance policies, the changing role of police in the schools and the disproportionate impact zero-tolerance policies have on children of color. The summary lists policy recommendations starting on page 9, which include limiting suspensions, expulsions and arrests to conduct that poses a serious threat to safety, and adopting and providing adequate resources for school violence prevention and intervention programs that have been assessed for effectiveness. The full report also is available online. (Advancement Project, March 2005)...

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