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From the ECS State Policy Database: School Safety--Expulsion/Suspension - This policy database—updated weekly—is made possible by your state's fiscal support of the Education Commission of the States....

Suspending Chicago's Students: Differences in Discipline Practices across Schools - Although out-of-school suspension rates and arrest rates in Chicago Public Schools have been going down since 2009-10, a subset of schools drive high suspension rates and these schools serve concentrations of extremely disadvantaged students. African American students are about three times more likely to be suspended than Latino students and more than four times more likely to be suspended than White or Asian students. (Lauren Sartain, Elaine M. Allensworth and Shanette Porter, UChicagoCCSR, September 2015)...

Discipline Practices in Chicago Schools: Trends in the Use of Suspensions and Arrests - Suspension rates in Chicago Public Schools have declined markedly but still remain very high, particularly among the system’s most vulnerable students. In the 2013-14 school year, 16 percent of CPS high school students received an out-of-school suspension (OSS), down from 23 percent in 2008-9. At the same time, students and teachers across the district report report feeling safer. (W. David Stevens, et al., Chicago Consortium on Chicago School Research, March 2015)...

Disproportionality in School Discipline: An Assessment of Trends in Maryland, 2009-12 Summary - More than 35 years of research indicates a national discipline gap between minority and White students. Recently, a similar gap between special education students and other students also has been highlighted. Using data from the Maryland State Department of Education, researchers found the percentage of Maryland students receiving out-of-school suspension or expulsion had dropped from 2009/10 to 2011-12, but because the decrease was more rapid for Whites, the White-Black gap increased. Statewide, Black and Special Ed students were removed at twice the rate of Whites. (Allan Porowski, Rosemarie O'Conner and Aikaterini Passa, Regional Educational Laboratory-Mid-Atlantic, March 2014)...

Understanding School Discipline in California: Perceptions and Practice - This report on a new EdSource survey of 315 school districts—representing two-thirds of public school students in California—sheds new light on how the state implements student discipline policies. (EdSource, September 2012)...

Breaking Schools' Rules: A Statewide Study of How School Discipline Relates to Students' Success and Juvenile Justice Involvement - Researchers followed nearly 1 million Texas public secondary school students for at least six years. They found when students are suspended or expelled, the likelihood that they will repeat a grade, not graduate, and/or become involved in the juvenile justice system increases significantly. African-American students and children with particular educational disabilities who qualify for special education were suspended and expelled at especially high rates. Paper-saving caution: 124 pages.(Tony Fabelo et al, Council of State Governments Justice Center and the Public Policy Research Institute at Texas A&M, July 2011) ...

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