contact staff ecs twitter facebook
Scheduling/School CalendarSelected Research & Readings (Additional Resources)
What States Are Doing
Selected Research & Readings
 Extended Day Programs
 Summer School

Scheduling/School Calendar--Summer School

Cost Per Day for Extended School Year MS Word PDF - Extending the school year has become a topic of interest to many states across the nation, and one of the first concerns any state looking to extend their school year must consider is the expenditure associated with extension of the school year. This ECS StateNote provides a rough estimate of what the cost-per-day for school operation can run in each state. (Stephanie Fonda, Education Commission of the States, January 2007)...

Prisoners of Time PDF - The 1994 report from the National Education Commission on Time and Learning states that, "Learning in America is a prisoner of time. For the past 150 years, American public schools have held time constant and let learning vary." This reprinted edition from ECS offers a new introduction and updated examples of the creative and productive ways in which schools can use time. It is designed to refocus attention on the critical issue of using time as a resource for teaching and learning. (National Education Commission on Time and Learning, April 1994, Reprinted by ECS, October 2005)...

Time for Learning White Paper - Policymakers should think of the time available for learning as a resource, just as they consider financial support, instructional materials and teacher expertise to be essential resources for learning. As with all resources, learning time needs to be well used to be of benefit. (National Academy of Education, November 2009)...

Alternatives to the Traditional School-Year Calendar - The second in a series, this policy brief examines the use of year-round and extended school-year calendars, reviews the research on the effectiveness of these options, and addresses emerging alternative policies on the use of instructional time. (Shaun P. Johnson and Terry E. Spradlin, Center for Education and Evaluation Policy, University of Indiana, Spring 2007)...

Is it Time to Change Indiana’s School-Year Calendar? - This study uses Indiana as its platform to compare with the nation and abroad the length of the school year and the effect on students of increasing instructional time. It examines the literature regarding professional development and contact time, and makes recommendations to Indiana for extending the school day and retaining the length of the school year. (Kelly Prendergast, Terry Spradlin and Vincent Palozzi, Center for Evaluation & Education Policy, Winter 2007)...

On The Clock: Rethinking the Way Schools Use Time - Extending the amount of time our children are in school may seem like the way to combat poor performance. As this report explains, more time spent in school can bring improvement, but not as a general result. Specific uses of the time and quality of the instruction play a larger role then just school day or year extension. This study examines research from all areas of the school year extension argument and makes recommendations to states that are considering lengthening school time. (Elena Silva, Education Sector, January 2007)...

Improving Student Achievement by Extending School: Is It Just a Matter of Time? - This report frames the research on the complex relationship between time and learning, focusing primarily on the empirical evidence about how time affects student achievement. Perhaps not surprisingly, the report reveals that while the amount of time spent in school does matter, how much or little it matters depends on the degree to which it is devoted to appropriate instruction. The report also focuses in on some key factors identified in the research as maximizing the academic effectiveness of existing school time. It concludes by examining the implications of the research findings. (Julie Aronson, Joy Zimmerman, Lisa Carlos, WestEd, 1998)...

Selected Research & Readings Current

Print Friendly and PDF


Thank you, Issue Site Sponsors

Home  |  About ECS  |  Education Issues A-Z  | Research Studies  |  Reports & Databases  |  State Legislation  |  State Profiles  |  Projects & Institutes  |  Newsroom  |  Website User's Guide

Information provided by ECS combines the best of the most recent and useful research available. Should you have questions, please contact our Information Clearinghouse at 303.299.3675.

700 Broadway, #810 Denver, CO 80203-3442
Phone: 303.299.3600 | Fax: 303.296.8332
©2015 Education Commission of the States |
Read our privacy policy