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Driving Education Reform with Stimulus Funds: Redesigning Schools and Expanding Learning Time MS Word PDF - Lengthening the school day can enable policymakers to address several education challenges through one reform strategy. These challenges include: (1) closing the unrelenting achievement gap; (2) broadening curriculum options in order to better engage students and counter the dropout crisis; and (3) the need to improve teacher skills.(Jennifer Davis and Kathy Christie, National Center on Time & Learning and the Education Commission of the States, June 2009)...

The Progress of Education Reform 2005: After-School Programs PDF - Well-structured and comprehensive after-school programming is increasingly viewed as a unique and essential component of efforts to promote learning and social development for children of all backgrounds. This issue of The Progress of Education Reform summarizes three recent reports that provide useful insights into what is known – and what isn't – about the role, value and impact of after-school programs.(Education Commission of the States, November 2005)...

Tracking an Emerging Movement: A Report on Expanded-Time Schools in America - Fifteen years ago the National Center on Time and Learning explained that the American school calendar of 180 days needed to be rethought. Today, a small but growing number of schools have begun to operate with school days substantially longer than the six-hour norm and, in many cases, a calendar that exceeds the standard 180 days. (David Farbman, National Center on Time and Learning, December 2009)...

Time for Learning White Paper - Policymakers should think of the time available for learning as a resource, just as they consider financial support, instructional materials and teacher expertise to be essential resources for learning. As with all resources, learning time needs to be well used to be of benefit. (National Academy of Education, November 2009)...

New Day for Schools—More Time to Learn: Enabling Higher Achievement and a Well-Rounded Education - Among the recommendations from 1983’s "Nation at Risk" was to increase learning time by extending the school day and year. A quarter century later, that recommendation is being embraced by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to take students beyond the basics of reading and mathematics, help youngsters bridge the achievement gap, and support teachers to improve instruction. After one year the Expanded Learning Time Initiative resulted in a substantial rise in proficiency in three tested subjects, marked increase in the number of expanded learning time schools demonstrating adequate yearly progress and a high satisfaction level among parents and teachers. (National Center on Time and Learning, July 2008)...

A New Day for Learning - Using examples from programs already in place around the nation, and knowledge about student learning, the Time, Learning, and Afterschool Task Force analyzes the way students are spending their days, and the importance of afterschool programs. It makes suggestions to states and policymakers regarding the importance of real world experience and building and retaining student interest in academics. (The Time, Learning, and Afterschool Task Force, January 2007) ...

Making Smart Investments in Afterschool: A Policy Primer for State and Local Leaders - This brief offers ideas for state and local policymakers to develop interagency collaboration, expand access to affordable after-school programs and advance general program quality. Examples of promising practices from across the country are included to show leaders concrete ways of promoting the sustainability of after-school programs. (National Child Care Information Center, June 2006)...

After-School Programs and Activities: 2005 - This report presents data on participation in after-school activities and programs in the United States. After-school programs and activities addressed include information about student participation in care arrangements in private homes with relatives and with care providers not related to them, participation in school-based or center-based after-school programs, participation in after-school activities that were not part of a school- or center-based program and self-care. (Priscilla R. Carver, Iheoma U. Iruka and Chris Chapman, National Center for Education Statistics, May 2006) ...

Selected Tables from the: 2003-04 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) PDF - Access SASS table detailing the percentage of schools that offered extended-day programs or services at the school for students – regardless of funding source – by school type and selected school characteristics: 2003-04. Full report available here. (Gregory A. Strizek, Jayme L. Pittsonberger, Kate E. Riordan, Deanna M. Lyter, Greg F. Orlofsky and Kerry Gruber, National Center for Education Statistics, March 2006)...

Using NCLB Funds to Support Extended Learning Time - This strategy brief describes several funding streams included in No Child Left Behind (NCLB) that can support extended-learning opportunities, including Title I, Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities, Comprehensive School Reform and Innovative Programs. The brief: (1) discuses NCLB to help after-school program leaders understand the context and tenets of the law and its funding streams, (2) describes each funding stream and discusses how each could be used to support extended learning in after-school programs, and (3) includes considerations and examples to help program leaders interested in pursuing education dollars to support extended-learning programs. (Ayeola Fortune and Heather Clapp Padgette, The Finance Project and The Council of Chief State School Officers, August 2005)...

Creating a Vision for Afterschool Partnerships - The purpose of this tool is to help the growing number of new afterschool partnerships create a shared vision for their work. It contains information to educate partners on what a vision statement is and the purpose it serves; provides two alternative techniques for creating a vision; and includes a variety of considerations for planning teams as they finalize a vision statement. (Afterschool Investments, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2005) ...

Making Out-of-School-Time Matter - This report presents the findings of a literature review in the out of school time (OST) field, investigating five major issues: the level of demand for OST services, the effectiveness of offerings, what constitutes quality in OST programs, how to encourage participation, and how to build further community capacity. A summary of the report also is available online. (Susan Bodilly and Megan K. Beckett, Rand, 2005)...

Time for a Change: The Promise of Extended-Time Schools for Promoting Student Achievement - Why do American public schools operate on a calendar of 180 six-hour days? Despite its irrelevance to the learning needs of today’s students, the conventional school schedule is adhered to almost universally across the country. This report details the work of a handful of “extended-time schools,” and describes and analyzes their effective practices. This research was conducted to understand how these particular schools, which have already demonstrated themselves to be effective, capitalize on the additional time, and what benefits the schools’ educators perceive the additional time delivers. The eight extended-time schools that Massachusetts 2020 examined for this project demonstrate that extending the time students spend in school is possible in a variety of settings, including district public schools, pilot schools, and charter schools, and through a range of funding and staffing innovations. (Massachusetts 2020, 2005)...

When Schools Stay Open Late: The National Evaluation of the 21st-Century Community Learning Centers Program - The 21st Century Community Learning Centers program has supported after-school programs since 1998, although research on its effects have been inconclusive. Using data colleted over three years, this study finds that elementary students randomly assigned to the 21st Century Community Learning Centers after-school program were: (1) more likely to feel safe after school, (2) no more likely to have higher academic achievement, (3) no less likely to be in self-care, (4) more likely to engage in some negative behaviors and (5) more likely to experience mixed effects on developmental outcomes relative to students not randomly assigned to attend the centers. (Susanne James-Burdumy, Mark Dynarski, Mary Moore, John Deke, Wendy Mansfield, Carol Pistorino and Elizabeth Walker, U.S. Department of Education, April 2005)...

CCDF and 21CCLC: State Efforts to Facilitate Coordination for Afterschool Programs - To date, few afterschool programs have successfully integrated funding from the Child Care and Development Fund and 21st Century Community Learning Centers. This short report describes the scope of the federal Child Care and Development Fund and 21st Century Community Learning Centers programs. The authors argue for aligning the two funds, and identify strategies states are using to overcome three areas of challenges for coordinating the two programs: philosophical and cultural differences, program administration, and competition for scarce resources. (National Child Care Information Center, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, October 2004)...

America After 3 PM - The results of this 50-state survey, the first-ever nationwide household survey on how students spend their after-school time, provide a state-by-state snapshot of the prevalence of various after-school care arrangements and the percentage of the school-age population participating in extended day activities. The findings indicate a significant proportion of both students who are taking care of themselves after school and students not in afterschool programs who would be interested in participating in such a program if one were offered in their community. The survey also reports on parental satisfacation with their child’s afterschool program, as well as each state’s most extensive afterschool provider and the amount the average family pays weekly for afterschool programs in the state. The results show that 11% of K-12 students in the U.S. participate in afterschool programs, while Hispanic and African-American children spend more time unsupervised than other children. (Afterschool Alliance, 2004)...

Before- and After-School Care, Programs and Activities of Children in Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade: 2001 - Based on the results of a nationwide survey, this report studies the prevalence of before- and after-school care arrangements; patterns of arrangements (one or multiple arrangements and who provides care); and amount of time spent in care, by student grade, race/ethnicity, family type (two- versus one-parent households); and parent factors (including language primarily spoken at home, highest level of education, mother’s employment status and household income). Findings also are reported on the types of activities children engaged in during care arrangements, location of care and time in transit, child-to-adult ratios, characteristics of providers (age and relation to student) and more. The findings reveal that half of all students in grades K-8 received after-school care, and 20% of K-8 students are supervised in before-school care arrangements. (Brian Kleiner, Mary Jo Nolin and Chris Chapman, National Center for Education Statistics, April 2004)...

Estimating Supply and Demand for Afterschool Programs: A Tool for State and Local Policymakers - This report provides a process for evaluating local or state afterschool program supply and demand, as well as examples of how states and cities have fared in implementing recommended steps. The appendix offers a sample provider survey instrument comprised of questions from several supply and demand surveys. (National Child Care Information Center, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, October 2004)...

Out-of-School Time Programs for At-risk Students - This paper is intended to bring a research-based perspective to those seeking to enhance their understanding of out-of-school-time (OST) programming for at-risk students.The paper contains a brief history of the evolution of OST programs, relevant research, examples of effective OST programs in reading and mathematics, and information on developing and administering OST programs. (Kirsten Miller and David Snow, Noteworthy Perspectives, Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning, 2004)...

The Effectiveness of Out-of-school-time Strategies in Assisting Low-achieving Students in Reading and Mathematics: A Research Synthesis - This report is a synthesis of research findings on effective out-of-school-time (OST) strategies to assist low-achieving students in reading and mathematics. Key findings of this study are: (1) OST strategies can have positive effects on the achievement of low-achieving or at-risk students in reading and mathematics; (2) whether an OST program is delivered after or summer school) does not influence its effectiveness; (3) younger students to benefit from OST strategies for improving reading, while older students may benefit more from OST strategies to improve math; (4) strategies do not need to focus only academic activities to have positive effects on student achievement; and (5) OST strategies that provide one-on-one tutoring for low-achieving or at-risk students have strong positive effects on student achievement in reading. (Patricia A. Lauer, Motoko Akiba, Stephanie B. Wilkerson, Helen S. Apthorp, David Snow and Mya Martin-Glenn, Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning, January 2004)...

Afterschool Programs - This Digest discusses the need for afterschool programs, the potential benefits, challenges affecting the viability of programs, factors identified with high-quality programs and the policy issues to be addressed. Policy issues described include initiating a limited number of evaluations of afterschool models, emphasizing the importance of collaboration between programs, developing measures of success and documenting the results. (Linda Lumsden, Afterschool Programs, Educational Resources Information Center, ERIC Digest, September 2003)...

The Growth in After-School Programs and Their Impact - This paper provides statistics on the rapid growth since the late 1990s in after-school and youth development programs and reasons for these programs’ sudden expansion. The researcher suggests components of “model” programs, and summarizes the findings from high-quality research studies on the impact of well-designed after-school and youth development programs. The report also considers the cost of such programs and a variety of implementation issues, from program location to outcomes measurement. (Rob Hollister, The Brookings Institution, February 2003)...

Challenges and Opportunities in After-School Programs: Lessons for Policymakers and Funders - School-based, after-school programs are increasingly becoming the solution policymakers suggest for many youth problems: unsupervised time, poor academic achievement, gang participation, violence and drug use. As federal spending increases, policymakers, funders and the public must balance their optimism about the programs' potential with the realities of what they might ultimately achieve. As this report describes, locating these programs in schools brings many benefits, but as the experience of at least one broad-based initiative is demonstrating, it also brings challenges that should be taken into consideration as programs are planned and funded. (Jean Baldwin Grossman, Karen Walker, Rebecca Raley, Public/Private Ventures and Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation, April 2001)...

Finding Alternatives to Failure: Can States End Social Promotion and Reduce Retention Rates? MS Word - Using data from the 16 member states of the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), this report analyzes the negative consequences of social promotion – for both the student and the community – and presents several strategies for helping struggling students reach and remain at grade level. (David R. Denton, SREB, January 2001)...

The Promise of After-School Programs MS Word - After-school programs are emerging as a popular strategy for improving student performance. They are relatively easy as school reforms go: they do not require major changes in institution structure or practice and they enjoy broad public support. During the past few years, thousands of schools across the nation have initiated after-school programs. (Beth M. Miller, Educational Leadership, vol. 58, no. 7, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, April 2001)...

21st Century Community Learning Centers: Providing Quality After-School Learning Opportunities for America’s Families MS Word - Authorized under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, this project enables school districts to fund public schools as community education centers keeping children safe in the after-school hours. This report describes the centers in great detail and offers numerous examples of how school districts and communities are developing and using them throughout the country. (Adriana de Kanter, Rebecca Williams, Gillian Cohen and Robert Stonehill, U.S. Department of Education, Washington, DC, September 2000)...

After-School Programs: Keeping Children Safe and Smart MS Word - This report focuses on the benefits children receive from after-school programs in terms of increased safety, reduced risk-taking and improved learning. (U.S. Department of Education, June 2000)...

State Profiles of Extended-Learning Initiatives -- Opportunities and Implementation Challenges MS Word - The rapid expansion of extended-learning initiatives is being driven by two factors: the development of challenging academic standards for all children and the high proportion of parents working full time outside of the home. Through high-quality extended-time programs, children get the extra support needed to excel academically, they are safe and given opportunities to engage in enriching activities. This report examines six state-sponsored extended-learning initiatives as part of the Chief State School Officers’ Project to Improve Achievement in High Poverty Schools. Each profile contains information about major program components and background data, eligibility and application requirements, description of target populations and extended-time projects, student outcomes, program evaluation and lessons learned. (Council of Chief State School Officers, May 2000)...

When School is Out MS Word - This companion piece to After-School Programs: Issues and Ideas offers analysis of, and recommendations for creating, after-school programs. There are 39 million American children between the ages of 5 and 14, yet the nation has no organized system for providing supervision, activities and opportunities to them during the hours when school is not in session. Nonschool programs can give children safe, supervised places to spend time, along with chances to learn new skills and interests. (The Future of Children, The David and Lucile Packard Foundation, Fall 1999)...


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