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America after 3 PM: Afterschool Programs in Demand - While participation in afterschool has increased, unmet demand also is rising. More than two in five children would participate if programs were available. Participation in and demand for afterschool are much higher for children from low-income households. Cost and lack of a safe way for their children to get to and come home from afterschool program are barriers for low-income, African-American and Hispanic families. (Afterschool Alliance, October 2014)...

The Effects of Increased Learning Time on Student Academic and Nonacademic Outcomes: Findings from a Meta-Analytic Review - Thirty studies were chosen to find out if increased learning time outside the academic day improved outcomes. Positive results weren't always produced, but some forms of instruction tailored to specific student types, lead to improvement. For example, increased learning time promoted achievement in math and literacy when instruction was led by a certified teacher in a traditional way, it improved literacy for under performing students and it improved social-emotional skills for students with ADHD. (Yael Kidron and Jim Lindsay, REL Appalachia, July 2014)...

Time for Teachers: Leveraging Expanded Time to Strengthen Instruction and Empower Teachers - Expanding time for collaboration, peer coaching, learning new content and student data review can boost teacher effectiveness and student achievement. A report looked at 17 high-poverty schools that averaged 300 more school-year hours than the national average of 1,170. Teachers at these schools taught 60 percent of the time as opposed to the 80 percent averaged by U.S. teachers. The international average for countries reporting to the OECD is 67 percent. (Claire Kaplan et al., National Center on Time and Learning, May 2014)...

Financing Expanded Learning Time in Schools - With new research and examples of how increased learning time can yield better outcomes, more schools are looking to join the 1,500 that have gone down that path. But how to pay for it? This brief identifies five district schools that answer key questions: (1) How much do schools pay for expanded time, specifically how much per hour and per student? (2) How are costs allocated across categories of school expenditures? (3) What are key sources of funding to cover each model? (4) What are the benefits for teaching and learning? (David A. Farbman, Sharon Deich and Heather Clapp PadgetteNational Center for Time & Learning and The Wallace Foundation, January 2014)...

Redesigning and Expanding School Time to Support Common Core Implementation - The case is made for expanding learning time for teachers while expanding it for students as well, being careful not to use that extra time to do more of the same. As the Common Core kicks in, teachers need to prepare for the transition to more rigorous standards and devote additional class time to richer, more personalized learning; students need additional time to grasp more difficult content. This brief includes recommendations for policymakers at the national, state and local levels to ease the way. (David A. Farbman, David J. Goldberg and Tiffany D. Miller, Center for American Progress, January 2014)...

Is Citywide Afterschool Coordination Going Nationwide? - Survey finds citywide afterschool program coordination is going nationwide and most large cities have begun to coordinate afterschool programs run by different entities. The degree of coordination varies and city size doesn't appear to be associated with the degree of coordination or the implementation of three key components: a coordinating entity, a common data system, and quality standards or framework. (Linda Simkin, Ivan Charner, Caitlin Dailey, Eric Watts, Hannah Taub and Abidemi Adelaja, FHI360 and the Wallace Foundation, September 2013)...

Learning Time in America: Trends to Reform the American School Calendar - An overview of federal, state, and district efforts to expand student learning time and close achievement gaps suggests significant headway has been made across the country at every level. State legislatures in New York and Florida, for instance, have passed bills to expand learning time. Seven states created turnaround districts to empower districts or schools to control budgets, staffing, and school schedules. Chicago expanded the school day and the school year for all its 340,000 students. “We are seeing a policy convergence today like no other,” said Jeremy Anderson, president of the Education Commission of the States (ECS). “Expanding learning time is one proven solution to help all students reach greater levels of achievement.” (National Center on Time & Learning, ECS, May 2013)...

More and Better Learning: Year One Report on ExpandED Schools - A demonstration started in 2011 in 11 elementary and middle schools in New York City, Baltimore and New Orleans shows that after adding three hours to the school day, elementary and middle school students improved their academic achievement, attended school more often and benefitted from improvements in school culture. The ExpandED Schools frame work offered some structure, but allowed school communities to customize the learning day. (TASC, April 2013)...

Bringing STEM to Scale through Expanded Learning Systems - Although low staff-to-student ratios and opportunities for project-based learning would seem to make after-school programs ideally suited to science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) learning, that is not happening. Authors present a strategy and promising approaches for building after-school STEM programs. To address the STEM gap in expanded learning programs, expectations of programs must change and frontline staff must be supported with professional development in STEM. (Jessica Donner and Yvonne Wang, Shifting Expectations, April 2013)...

Year-Round Learning: Continuity in Education Across Settings and Time Through Expanded Learning Opportunities - Instead of putting the entire burden of educating America's youth on schools, why not recognize the richness of education outside the classroom and spread the wealth? That is, spread the school day and spread the summer so learning is year-round. Do it with a coordination of public, nonprofit, and private budgets and it's possible all parties will save money. The third in a series on Expanded Learning Opportunities (ELOs), this brief from the Harvard Family Research Project and the National Conference of State Legislatures suggests such a plan allows amplification of school learning with hands-on activities, it allows for an individualized learning plan that recognizes a student's needs and interests, and it prevents summer learning loss. (Erin Harris and Ashley Wallace, National Conference of State Legislators, December 2012)...

21st Century Community Learning Centers: Stable Funding for Innovation and Continuous Improvement - This latest issue of the Harvard Family Research Project's Research Update series reviews evaluations and research studies that showcase innovations in afterschool programs supported by 21st CCLC funding, and focuses on three areas of innovation: (1)Promoting academic achievement; (2) Evaluating and continuously improving major OST initiatives, and; (3)Providing high-quality OST experiences for youth. (Harvard Family Research Project, May 2012)...

States Need to Fill in the Gaps on Expanded Learning Time: Troubling Lack of Detail Seen in No Child Left Behind Waiver Applications - This analysis finds that most of the states receiving NCLB waivers missed an opportunity to rethink how they use time in school to promote student achievement. The author argues that rather than simply tacking additional hours onto the school day, week, or year, schools need to carefully consider how they design their schedule to strategically incorporate increased time for academics, enrichment, and teacher preparation, planning, and collaboration. (Center for American Progress, April 2012)...

Staggered Schedules: Cost -Effective Solution to Increased Learning Time PDF - Brooklyn Generation has emerged as a nationwide model for cost effectively adding time. Without raises in teacher pay or time, and within the confines of union contracts, Brooklyn Generation has lengthened the traditional school year from180 to 200 days. Despite the longer year, school administrators have creatively restructured the school calendar to provide all teachers with three months of vacation each year. (National Center on Time and Learning, 2012)...

Time Well Spent: Eight Powerful Practices of Successful, Expanded-Time Schools - The NCTL's new report profiles 30 expanded learning time schools across the country in 11 states and large cities like New York, Chicago, Boston, New Orleans, and Philadelphia that serve large percentages of low-income kids. All the schools examined in the report have used various expanded-time models and seen improvements in students, staff, and the schools overall. (National Center on Time and Learning, September 2011)...

Collecting and Using Information to Strengthen Citywide Out-of-School Time Systems - This guide presents examples of how mayors, council members and other municipal leaders across the country have implemented each strategy to improve the out-of-school time opportunities available in their cities and towns. The powerful role city leaders can play in supporting data collection at the program and city levels is highlighted. (Lane Russell and Priscilla Little, Wallace Foundation, September 2011)...

Harnessing the Power of Expanded Time to Improve Schools: A Study of Three Districts - The U.S. Department of Education is re-vamping the Title I School Improvement Grant (SIG) program into an effort to turn around the nation's lowest performing schools. They identified a series of research-based, high-impact practices for individual schools to implement in their own transformation. Included in these practices are data-driven instruction, job-embedded professional development, and increased learning time. Educators must aim to put coherent, coordinated strategies into practice that build on one another. In addition to the full report, there is an executive summary. (David Farbman, National Center on Time and Learning, August 2011)...

Out-of-School Time Programs in Rural Areas - Out-of-school time programming can be vitally important to families in rural areas where resources to support children's learning and development can be insufficient. This report highlights findings from evaluations and research studies of nine programs located in rural areas. (Harvard Family Research Project, March 2011)...

An Outcome Evaluation of the Success for Kids Program - This report presents results for a multisite, quantitative evaluation of the international Success for Kids after-school program. The program seeks to build resilience in children by teaching them to access inner resources and build positive connections with others. The well-known second edition of the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC-2). The researchers found the program had beneficial effects on virtually every domain covered by the BASC-2. The program had medium to large effects on adaptive skills, social skills, leadership, study skills and communication skills. A summary is also available. (Nicole Maestas and Sarah Gaillot, Rand, November 2010)...

Expanded-Time Schools PDF - The highest-performing public schools in the country all show that added time is a significant contributor to the success of their students. By cutting time from the school schedule, policymakers are making decisions driven by economics without having the research to look to for the impact. (Powerpoint presentation at the Education Commission of the States 2010 National Forum). (Jennifer Davis, National Center for Time and Learning, August 2010)...

Building a Better School Day: The Massachusetts Expanded Learning Time Initiative - This webinar examined the creation, implementation and results of the Massachusetts Expanded Learning Time Initiative. The webinar runs slightly less than one hour. (American Youth Policy Forum, July 2010)...

After-School Programs in Public Elementary Schools: First Look - This study provides a national profile of various types of formal after-school programs physically located at public elementary schools in 2008. (National Center for Education Statistics, February 2009)...

Making Smart Investments in Afterschool: A Policy Primer for State and Local Leaders and Local Leaders - This brief offers ideas for state and local policymakers to develop interagency collaboration, expand access to affordable afterschool programs and advance general program quality. Examples of promising practices from across the country are included to show leaders concrete ways of promoting the sustainability of afterschool programs. (National Child Care Information Center, August 2006) ...


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