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Assessment--Accommodations
Postsecondary Students--Disabilities/Special Needs
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Technology for Students with Disabilities MS Word - Technology can open up new doors to learning for all students, including students with disabilities. Those with physical, sensory and learning disabilities can use technology to participate in classroom learning, communicate in alternative ways, enjoy better mobility and master basic skills. As with all education technology, effective policy and purchasing decisions require information about the range of available technologies, along with careful planning and implementation. (Education Commission of the States, September 1998)...

Surrogate Parents and Children with Disabilities: State-Level Approaches - Based on a survey of states, this document summarizes state-level approaches to using surrogate parents in order to meet the needs of children with disabilities. (Eve Muller, National Association of State Directors of Special Education, November 2009)...

Parentally Placed Private School Students with Disabilities - This document focuses on state education agency support for child find, consultation and provision of equitable service provisions for parentally placed private school students with disabilities. Project Forum completed this activity as part of its cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Education Office of Special Education Programs. Thirty five states responded to the survey. (Kim M. Sopko, National Association of State Directors of Special Education, October 2008)...

New Hampshire Commission on Autism Spectrum Disorders: Findings and Recommendations - The New Hampshire Commission on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) was created by the 2007 state legislature and charged with examining and making recommendations regarding the care, treatment and quality of life for children and adults with ASD and their families. This report presents the challenges for public policy and the guiding principles which must exist. Finally, the New Hampshire Commission on Autism Spectrum Disorders made recommendations for the important first steps to begin addressing the challenges the disorder poses to the state. (New Hampshire Commission on Autism Spectrum Disorders, 2008)...

The No Child Left Behind Act and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: A Progress Report - This report documents changes in student outcomes, professional practices and policy in response to NCLB and IDEA, with a particular focus on ten states. In general, students with disabilities appear to be doing better academically and to be graduating with diplomas and certificates at higher rates than in prior years. However, dropout rates among these students remain a concern. The report offers recommendations to address issues related to students with disabilities. (National Council on Disability, January 28, 2008)...

Perceptions and Expectations of Youth With Disabilities - This report provides a picture of the self-representations and expectations of youth with disabilities, how they differ across disability categories and demographic groups and how they compare with youth in the general population. The report presents findings drawn primarily from interviews or surveys from youth ages 15 through 19. The report addresses questions such as how youth with disabilities describe their feelings about themselves and their lives, their secondary school experiences, their personal relationships and their expectations for the future. (U.S. Institute of Education Sciences, August 2007)...

Standards-Based Individualized Education Program Examples - The development of Individualized Educational Programs (IEPs) is becoming increasingly important as new accountability measures are implemented. This report outlines a seven-step process to be used in developing a standards-based IEP. (Marla Davis Holbrook, Project Forum, August 2007)...

Demographic and School Characteristics of Students Receiving Special Education in the Elementary Grades - This issue brief examines the demographic and school characteristics of students receiving special education in elementary grades. Prior studies have documented the number of children receiving special education services in each year during the elementary school years by gender, race/ethnicity, and disability. (William Herring Daniel, McGrath and Jacquelyn Buckley, National Center for Education Statistics, July 2007 ...

Curriculum Access for Students with Low-Incidence Disabilities: The Promise of Universal Design for Learning - A major premise of this report is that access to the curriculum for students with low-incidence disabilities is greatly enhanced by universal design. Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a particular framework that applies to education. More specifically, UDL is an approach that can guide curriculum reform. A universally-designed curriculum includes multiple means of representation (to allow various ways of acquiring information and knowledge), multiple means of expression (to allow alternatives for demonstrating knowledge) and multiple means of engagement (to challenge appropriately, to motivate and to allow learners to express and participate in their interests). A number of current contrasting approaches to universal design are described. (Richard Jackson, National Center on Assessing the General Curriculum, 2007)...

State Approaches to Serving Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders - In response to the large reported growth of Autism Spectrum Disorders, this report summarizes the data collected from 46 state education agencies in regards to how they are providing the necessary resources to support these children through the Individuals with Disabilities Act. It details support such as personnel, professional development, eligible children, and other state initiatives. (Eve MŁller, Project Forum and the U.S. Department of Education, December 2006) ...

Bureau of Indian Affairs and State Education Agencies: Roles and Responsibilities in Implementing IDEA - This document identifies the major issues related to Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) and state education agencies (SEAs) general supervision roles and responsibilities in implementing IDEA by building on the work of the Mountain Regional Resource Center through an analysis of information obtained from interviewing representatives of both the BIA and five SEAs. (Eve Muller, Project Forum at NASDSE, October 2006) ...

Closing the Achievement Gap Series: Part II Response to Intervention (RTI) Basic Elements, Practical Applications, and Policy Recommendations - Response to Intervention (RTI) refers to an integrated, schoolwide method of service delivery across general and special education that promotes successful school outcomes for all students. This brief provides a broad overview of RTI, beginning with a discussion of the impetus behind RTI, which stems from flaws in the current special education system and specifically in the ability-achievement model for identifying learning disabilities. Next, the authors describe the principal components of RTI and highlight several model RTI programs around the country and provide policy recommendations for the implementation of RTI in Indiana. (Rebecca S. MartŪnez, Leah M. Nellis, and Kelly A. Prendergast, Center for Evaluation and Education Policy, Fall 2006) ...

Raising The Achievement of Students With Disabilities: - This brief announces new final regulations under the IDEA designed to help schools, districts and states implement IDEA and NCLB seamlessly to ensure that the goals of each law are met. The changes were shaped by thousands of public comments from educators, parents and others. (U.S. Department of Education, August 2006)...

Placing and Serving Children with Disabilities in the LRE - This document synthesizes information from Study of State and Local implementation and Impact of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act pertaining to the placing and serving of children with disabilities, including minority children, in the LRE as reflected in data from the 2002-03 school year. (Sunil Misra, Project Forum, March 2006) ...

Examples of Early Dispute Resolution Strategies - This list provides examples of early dispute resolution strategies being utilized by state and local education agencies to resolve special education and early intervention conflicts. It identifies the strategies, provides a brief description of each and lists some states where the programs are being implemented. Listed programs include IEP facilitation, parent-to-parent assistance, shuttle mediation and arbitration. The list is located in the appendix of the report, Beyond Mediation: Strategies for Appropriate Early Dispute Resolution in Special Education. (Edward Feinberg, Jonathan Beyer, Philip Moses and Judy Schrag, The Consortium for Appropriate Dispute Resolution in Special Education, October 2002) ...

Executive Summary: Interim Report for the Study of State and Local Implementation and Impact of the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) (2002-2003 School Year) PDF - When the U.S. Congress passed the IDEA amendments in 1997, it authorized an evaluation to track progress at the state and local levels on the expanded goals of the legislation. This executive summary presents key implementation findings based upon data collected during the 2002-03 school year for each of nine topics of congressional interest. Topics include the placement of students with disabilities in the least restrictive environment, including minority students, helping students with disabilities to access the general education curriculum, decreasing the risk of students with disabilities from dropping out of school and more. (Ellen Schiller, Ellen Bobronnikov, Fran O'Reilly, Cristofer Price and Robert St. Pierre, Abt Associates, Inc., March 2005)...

Special Education: Children with Autism - This report gives background on autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the number of children with autism being served under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), the services provided and the estimated per-pupil expenditures in educating these students and the approaches used in teaching children with autism. The researchers found that from 1993 to 2002, the number of youth age 6-21 diagnosed with autism grew by over 500%, and that in the 1999-2000 school year, the average per-pupil expenditure for educating a student with autism exceeded $18,000, a figure nearly three times the per-pupil expenditure of educating a student not receiving special education services. A broad range of services can be available for students with autism, whose service needs may transform over time. (U.S. Government Accountability Office, January 2005) ...

Improving Educational Outcomes for Students with Disabilities - Based on a literature review, as well as interviews with policymakers, researchers and practitioners nationwide, this report gauges the impact of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and NCLB in public expectations for students with disabilities. It also provides numerous recommendations for decisionmakers and practitioners alike. The study finds both acts are having an overall positive influence on the achievement of students with disabilities, but NCLB has the potential for positive as well as negative impact on the high school dropout rate among these youth. The authors also explore the scientifically based research on serving students with disabilities, including evidence-based strategies for dropout prevention, transition to postsecondary education and the workforce, and assessments and accommodations. The reportís number one recommendation is to not revert to lower expectations for students with disabilities. (National Council on Disability, May 2004)...

Numbers of Formal Disputes Are Generally Low and States Are Using Mediation and Other Strategies To Resolve Conflicts - Using national data and site visits to state and local education agencies in California, Massachusetts, Ohio and Texas, this report finds that formal dispute resolution activity is low among parents who disagree over their student's special education needs. These states emphasized mediation and made it more available than required by federal law. (United States General Accounting Office, September 2003)...

Specific Learning Disability: Current Approaches to Identification and Proposals for Change MS Word - This publication reviews current requirements under federal law and discusses several specific learning disabilities identification approaches and how they are being used used in state practices. (Eileen M. Ahearn, National Association of State Directors of Special Education, August 2003)...

Special Education: Clearer Guidance Would Enhance Implementation of Federal Disciplinary Provisions - This report is based on a United States General Accounting Office (GAO) study of special education disciplinary placements in three states Ė Illinois, Maryland and North Carolina. These states reported they are providing a range of services to disciplined special education students, but state and local school district officials may not have the specific information they need to comply with federal requirements, and therefore disciplined special education students may not receive timely protections and services. The report recommends that the Secretary of Education issue supplemental guidance to state and local education agencies to assist them in implementing IDEA's disciplinary provisions. (GAO, May 2003)...

When Itís Your Own Child: A Report on Special Education from the Families Who Use It PDF - The stigma once attached to children with disabilities is disappearing, according to parents of special education students. Majorities also give their local special education programs and teachers high marks. But parents offer mixed views on whether the right kids are getting the right services, with most saying too many special-needs children lose out because their parents are not aware of what's available. Some 65% say some children with behavior problems get misdirected into special education. (Jean Johnson, Ann Duffett, Steve Farkas and Leslie Wilson, Public Agenda, 2002)...

Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education--Summary - Educators should provide minority students who are poorly prepared for school with high-quality instruction and social support in a general classroom before making a determination that special education is needed, according to this new report. Since 1975, when Congress passed the "Individuals with Disabilities Education Act" requiring schools to serve disabled students, children in some racial and ethnic groups have been placed in special education programs in disproportionately large numbers. The report examines the data on early childhood experience, on differences in educational opportunity, and on referral and placement, and also considers whether disproportionate representation should be considered a problem. (Committee on Minority Representation in Special Education, M. Suzanne Donovan and Christoper T. Cross, Editors, National Research Council, 2002)...

Student Discipline: Individuals With Disabilities Education Act - This survey examines the upshot of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act in relation to disciplinary action for disabled students and nondisabled students. Based on 272 middle school and high school respondents, the report states that special education students involved in serious misconduct are disciplined in a similar manner to regular education students. (General Accounting Office, January 2001)...

Social Promotion and Students with Disabilities: Issues and Challenges in Developing State Policies - This study looks at existing and emerging state policies on social promotion to determine the extent that students with disabilities are included or excluded. Analysis showed that policies varied considerably in terms of the bases for promotion decisions, but that all states used test performance as the primary basis for decisions. To provide remedial coursework to students, most states relied on summer school, extended-day or after-school programs. (Rachel F. Quenemoen, Camilla A. Lehr, Martha L. Thurlow, Sandra J. Thompson and Sara Bolt, National Center on Educational Outcomes, Synthesis Report #34, June 2000)...

Discipline Procedures for Students with Disabilities - In response to the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), as well as recent state legislation on school safety, this guide provides technical assistance regarding the discipline of students with disabilities in accordance with laws of the State of New York, as well as interpretations of federal law. It provides an overview of the disciplinary process, guidelines for assessing and addressing behaviors, functional behavior assessments and intervention plans. The relationship between a studentís disability and behavior figures prominently into the picture and is presented. (Office of Vocational and Educational Services for Individuals with Disabilities, University of the State of New York, State Education Department, January 2001). ...

Conference on Minority Education in Special Education MS Word - This research report by the Civil Rights Project provides key research findings and policy recommendations regarding special education programs and the need for reassessment by researchers, policymakers, advocates, and educators in terms of the positive and negative implications for minority students. Special education has been too often a place to segregate minorities and students with disabilities. Despite some far-reaching improvements, both racial and disability discrimination persists. (The Civil Rights Project, Harvard University, November 2000)...


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