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Special EducationOveridentificationWhat States Are Doing (Additional Resources)
 What States Are Doing
 Selected Research & Readings

The Disproportionate Number of Minority Students in Special Education MS Word PDF - According to this ECS StateNote, for problems that are readily observable and diagnosable by medical professionals (such as deafness, blindness or orthopedic impairment) there is no marked disproportion in the numbers of students referred for special education services. There are many disparities, however, found in the special education categories that carry the greatest stigma, including mental retardation, emotional disturbance and learning disabilities. (Andrea Paolino and Kirstin Craciun, Education Commission of the States, October 2003)...

Gender and Special Education: Current State Data Collection - This report, from Project Forum of the National Association of State Directors of Special Education, Inc. (NASDSE), is a summary of information from state education agencies regarding state-level special education data by gender, and gender and special education issues identified as areas of concern. The most commonly reported concerns were gender disproportionality in regard to special education identification overall, disciplinary actions and educational environments. (Jennifer Tschantz and Joy Markowitz, Quick Turn Around, NASDSE, January 2003) ...

Biennial Performance Reports: Disproportionality - The 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) require states to collect and examine data on disproportionality, the over- or under-representation of students from particular racial/ethnic groups receiving special education services in relation to the representation of that group in the total student population. This report, from Project Forum of the National Association of State Directors of Special Education, Inc. (NASDSE), is a brief analysis of the types of information about disproportionality that states submitted to the U.S. Department of Education in May 2002. According to this report, more than three quarters of states reported one or more areas or types of disproportionality. (Eve Müller and Joy Markowitz, Quick Turn Around, NASDSE, January 2003)...

State Criteria for Determining Disproportionality - This newsletter provides a brief analysis of the criteria states use to determine if there is a disproportionately high or low number of students from a particular racial/ethnic group receiving special education services, assigned to a disability classification or placed in an educational environment. (Joy Markowitz, Project Forum, NASDSE, February 2002)...

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