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 Selected Research & Readings

State Procedural Due Process Provisions for Out-of-School Suspensions MS Word PDF - In its 1975 ruling on Goss v. Lopez, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that students had a right to due process protections under the U.S. Constitution for out-of-school suspensions that were less than 10 days. This ECS Highlights document summarizes a recent study by Perry Zirkel and Mark Covelle that examined state laws in the wake of the Goss decision. (Kyle Zinth, Education Commission of the States, May 2010)...

Empowering Parents and Communities through Quality Public Reporting - Publicly reporting data, though it could be a powerful way for states to promote transparency, now mostly responds to state and federal laws. This brief recommends ensuring data is accurate and safeguarded, maintaining coordination across P-20/workforce entities, ensuring data meet the needs of all stakeholders and ensuring that it is accessible. (Data Quality Campaign, October 2014)...

Student Data and Consent Policies - As concerns grew about longitudinal data systems and student privacy, some policymakers advocated for opt-out policies in which parents could pick and choose what information about their children would go into statewide systems. This brief explains why those policies are problematic and offers alternative recommendations. (Data Quality Campaign, October 2014)...

Student Data Collection, Access, and Storage - Three common myths about the Common Core assessment consortia get busted in this brief. The first is that the consortia are federal or require some data to be handed over to the federal government. The second is that the consortia won't adequately protect student privacy and will share student data indiscriminately. The third is that such personal questions as family religion and income will be part of the assessments. No, no, no. (Data Quality Campaign, October 2014) ...

Student Data: Trust, Transparency, and the Role of Consent - How data is used both in classrooms and by educators and policymakers to assess educational outcomes is explained in this brief. A discussion follows about the practical implications of consent requirements, a look at federal student privacy protections and an argument for addressing privacy concerns for all students rather than a piecemeal subtraction of some aspects of student privacy by parental order. (Jules Polonetsky and Joseph Jerome, Future of Privacy Forum, October 2014)...

A Stoplight for Student Data Use - Student information can be a boon to teachers, parents and policymakers, but not everybody gets access, according to this handy little guide to FERPA, the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. Who can? Parents of children younger than 18, teachers to meet students' educational needs, another school if the student intends to enroll, among others. Who can't? Employers without student consent, anyone who wants the records for marketing, anyone who wants to buy information. The guide should not be considered a substitute for legal counsel. (Data Quality Campaign, June 2014)...

Protecting Student Privacy While Using Online Educational Services: Requirements and Best Practices - Studentsí privacy protection guidelines issued by the U.S. Department of Education sought to help schools and districts take advantage of rapidly evolving learning technology while not jeopardizing the privacy of students who use it. Explaining relevant laws and best practices, the advice is non-binding, but comes amidst an atmosphere of growing urgency over the issue with several state and federal legislators poised to introduce legislation. A baseline standard is that student information should only be used for educational purposes, not to sell snacks or video games. (Privacy Technical Assistance Center, February 2014)...

Forum Guide to the Privacy of Student Information: A Resource for Schools - This guide was written to help school and local education agency staff to better understand and apply FERPA, a federal law that protects privacy interests of parents and students in student education records.(National Center for Education Statistics, July 2006) ...

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