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The Progress of Education Reform PDF - This issue of The Progress of Education Reform describes "pay-for-performance" (PFP) models and presents recent research findings and their implications for policy. It looks at PFP systems broadly and includes not only systems that provide rewards for increased student achievement, but also for other tasks such as engaging in professional development and taking on added roles and responsibilities. (Barbara Thompson and Paul Baumann, ECS, October 2011)...

Teaching Quality: What helps recruit and retain good teachers? - Access related research titles from the ECS Research Studies Database. Links embedded in titles will take you to each study's major findings and recommendations....

The Progress of Education Reform: Increasing Teacher Retention PDF - This issue of The Progress of Education Reform highlights data and research on why teachers leave, how attrition affects teacher shortages across the nation and the importance of working conditions for student performance. It also includes links to additional resources on teacher attrition and teacher working conditions. (Tricia Coulter and Ashley Zaleski, Education Commission of the States, December 2007)...

Eight Questions on Teacher Recruitment and Retention: What Does the Research Say? A Summary of The Findings PDF - This paper summarizes the findings of an ECS report that reviewed 91 studies on teacher recruitment and retention in search of answers to eight questions that are of particular importance to policy and education leaders. (Michael Allen, Education Commission of the States, October 2005)...

2013 State Teacher Policy Yearbook National Summary - The National Council on Teacher Quality annually tracks and analyzes teacher policies across all states and the District of Columbia. The Yearbook is mammoth – 226 pages – and can be searched by national findings, by issue, or by state. States get overall grades, based on individual criteria which also are graded. For those interested in particular states, or in comparing states, there is an interactive map. (NCTQ, January 2014)...

Transfer Incentives for High-Performing Teachers: Final Results from a Multisite Randomized Experiment - Implemented in 10 school districts in seven states, the Talent Transfer Initiative found highly effective teachers to fill 81 openings in schools serving disadvantaged students. The incentive was $20,000 paid in installments over a two-year period and it raised test scores in math and reading in elementary schools, but not in middle schools. The incentive also had a positive impact on teacher-retention rates during the payout period. After the last payout, retention rates of high-performing teachers was similar to their counterparts. (Steven Glazerman et al., National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, November 2013)...

Who Considers Teaching and Who Teaches? First-Time 2007-08 Bachelor's Degree Recipients by Teaching Status 1 Year after Graduation - How many aspiring teachers finish their preparation programs and never teach? How many consider teaching, but choose not to follow that path in college? (Sandra Staklis and Robin Henke, NCES, November 2013)...

The Student Has Become the Teacher: Tracking the Racial Diversity and Academic Composition of the Teacher Supply Pipeline - A longitudinal statewide database tracks students through the new teacher supply pipeline from high school through college and initial teacher certification. Looking at how each stage influences the characteristics of those who enter the teaching profession, the report pays particular attention to academic skills and racial/ethnic diversity which impact teacher effectiveness. It finds transition from certification to employment was one of the most critical stages in the new teacher pipeline. (Illinois Education Research Council, October 2013) ...

An Opportunity Culture for All: Making Teaching a Highly Paid, High-Impact Profession - The bad news: Between 1970 and 2010, per pupil spending went up almost 150%, but only 11 percent went to teachers. Teacher salaries and student outcomes stagnated. There's a better way, the authors argue. Junk the one-teacher-one-classroom model. Create teaching teams led by one excellent teacher so more kids get exposed. Use digital instruction and paraprofessionals to save money and spend that money on better teacher pay. Be more selective about which teachers enter, which teachers stay. (Emily Ayscue Hassel and Bryan C. Hassel, Public Impact, September 2013)...

A Human Capital Framework for a Stronger Teacher Workforce - Building a stronger teacher workforce requires multiple processes working together: getting the right teachers in the right positions on time (acquire), supporting professional growth (develop), nurturing and rewarding high-performing teachers (sustain) and informing evidence-based personnel decisions (evaluate). (Jeannie Myung, Krissia Martinez and Lee Nordstrum, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, August 2013) (Jeannie Myung, Krissia Martinez and Lee Nordstrum, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, August 2013)...

Keeping Irreplaceables in D.C. Public Schools - This report provides a deeper look at retention strategies discussed in The Irreplaceables and how they're playing out in District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS). The paper explains how DCPS has moved toward smarter teacher retention, mainly by raising expectations and removing consistently low-performing teachers. The report also shows that DPCS is missing some opportunities to make even more progress. (The New Teacher Project, Nov 2012)...

Opportunity Culture Initiative: Extending the Reach of Excellent Teachers and Building an Opportunity Culture for All - The authors of this report argue that even five consecutive years of the current efforts to increase teaching quality nationwide would leave most classrooms without an excellent teacher. However, the authors suggest that schools can ensure excellent teachers are in every classroom by “extending the reach” of excellent teachers to more students by redesigning jobs and using technology to make the best use of teachers’ time. Included in the report are school models that the authors believe meet this need. (Public Impact, 2012)...

Recruiting Expert Teachers Into High-Needs Schools: Leadership, Money, and Colleagues - Teacher quality experts are urging policymakers to identify and target expert teachers and entice them to teach in high-needs schools. To understand what this might take, expert teachers in Arizona were surveyed to understand their job-related preferences to inform future recruitment policies. Findings should inform others about the important factors educational policymakers might consider when thinking about recruiting expert teachers into high-needs schools. These factors include the quality of the principal; salary, bonuses, and benefits; and the degree to which expert teachers can work in multiple roles to enhance student learning. (EPAA, September 2012)...

The Irreplaceables: Understanding the Real Retention Crisis in America's Urban Schools - Spanning four urban school districts encompassing 90,000 teachers, this study focuses on the experiences of the “Irreplaceables”: teachers so successful at advancing student learning that they are nearly impossible to replace. It finds that schools rarely make a strong effort to keep these teachers despite their success—and rarely usher unsuccessful teachers out. These retention patterns stymie school turnaround efforts and prevent the teaching profession from earning the prestige it deserves. The report offers two major recommendations: 1) Make retention of Irreplaceables a top priority; and 2) Strengthen the teaching profession with higher expectations. (The New Teacher Project, July 2012)...

Building and Sustaining Talent: Creating Conditions in High-Poverty Schools That Support Effective Teaching and Learning - This paper examines teacher recruitment and retention in hard to staff schools. The authors offer examples of how some schools and districts are making high-poverty, low-performing schools satisfying, attractive places to work. (The Education Trust, June 2012)...

Moving Teachers: Implementation of Transfer Incentives in Seven Districts - This report describes the implementation and intermediate impacts of an intervention designed to provide incentives to induce a school district’s highest-performing teachers to work in its lowest-achieving schools to improve student achievement. The intervention, Talent Transfer Initiative (TTI), offers $20,000 to highest-performers within certain categories of teachers if they agree to transfer and remain for at least two years in one of the selected low-achieving schools in the district. This report summarizes some of the impacts on teacher hiring, teacher support, and student assignment and practices. The impacts of the transfer incentive program on student and teacher outcomes will be examined in a subsequent report. (National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, April 2012) ...

Does Money Buy Strong Performance in PISA? - In this brief, the authors find that the success of a country’s education system depends more on how educational resources are invested than on the volume of investment, especially among high-wealth countries. Findings indicate that the strongest performers among high-income countries and economies tend to invest more in teachers and in high expectations for all of their students....

Many Ways Up, No Reason to Move Out - This report offers a new model for teaching and learning that keeps students at the forefront and ensures a strong support system for teachers. The model is aimed at keeping teachers in the profession of teaching while giving them the ability to move up in stature, experience, responsibility, authority and pay. (Center for Teaching Quality, December 2011)...

Teacher Diversity Matters: A State-by-State Analysis of Teachers of Color - This report highlights the disparity between teachers of color and their students in public schools. According to the report, the makeup of the nation’s teacher workforce force has not kept up with changing demographics. At the national level, students of color make up more than 40% of the public school population. In contrast, teachers of color—teachers who are not non-Hispanic white—are only 17% of the teaching force. Teachers of color serve as role models for students, giving them a clear and concrete sense of what diversity in education and our society looks like. The report includes a 50-state analysis of teachers of color. The disparity was lowest in Vermont, Maine and West Virginia (4 percent) and highest in California (43 percent). (Ulrich Boser, Center for American Progress, November 2011)...

Seizing Opportunity at the Top: How the U.S. Can Reach Every Student with an Excellent Teacher - The authors conclude that if our nation consistently provides students with excellent teachers, we could close most of our stubborn achievement gaps in just five years. By putting excellent teachers in charge of every child’s learning, consistently, the U.S. can achieve the goals of closing opportunity gaps and helping every student reach their potential. (Emily Ayscue Hassel and Bryan Hassel, Public Impact, 2011)...

New Evidence on Teacher Labor Supply - To isolate the importance of teacher labor supply, the authors attended three large teacher job fairs in Chicago during the summer of 2006 and collected detailed information on the specific schools at which teachers interviewed. They document a substantial variation in the number of applicants per school. They show that the demographic characteristics of schools strongly predict the number of applicants to the school in the expected direction. Interestingly, the geographic location of the school is an extremely strong predictor of applications, even after controlling for a host of observable school and neighborhood characteristics. (National Bureau of Economic Research, February 2011)...

Recruiting and Retaining Qualified Special Education Personnel: Approaches from Eight State Education Agencies - The interview used for this report addressed 10 recruitment and retention strategies that were chosen based on the National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE) work with state. State-level infrastructures, recruitment to the field, recruitment to specific jobs, retention, barriers and recommendations were discussed. An appendix that delineates state-level approaches to recruitment and retention about which the eight states were interviewed is provided. (Eve Muller, NASDSE, February 2011)...

Closing the Talent Gap: Attracting and Retaining Top-Third Graduatets to Careers in Teaching--An International and Market Research-Based Perspective - Improving teacher effectiveness to lift student achievement has become a major theme in U.S. education. Most efforts focus on improving the effectiveness of teachers already in the classroom or on retaining the best performers and dismissing the least effective. Attracting more young people with stronger academic backgrounds to teaching has received comparatively little attention. This report looks at the experiences of the top-performing systems in the world which recruit, develop and retain the leading academic talent as one of their central education strategies. (Byron Auguste, Paul Kihn and Matt Miller, McKinsey and Company, September 2010)...

Teacher Attrition and Mobility: Results from the 2008-09 Teacher Follow-Up Survey - The objective of the teacher follow-up survey is to provide information about teacher mobility and attrition among elementary and secondary teachers in the 50 states and D.C. The survey can address questions such as: (1) What percentage of teachers leave the profession between one year and the next? (2) What factors contribution to the decision to move on or leave the profession? (3) How many teachers move from one school to another? and (4) Where do teachers go when they move or leave? (Ashley Keigher and Freddie Cross, National Center for Education Statistics, August 2010)...

Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Minorities--Table 9.1 - Table 9.1 indicates the percentage of public high school teachers with a college major and standard certification in their respective main teaching assignments in math, English and science by race/ethnicity concentration of schools in the 2007-08 school year. (National Center for Education Statistics, July 2010)...

America's Teacher Corps - The report proposes a new federal program, America's Teacher Corps, to support the development of effective teacher evaluation systems at the district and state level in order to keep the best teachers in the classroom, enhance the likelihood that more qualified people will enter teaching, provide opportunities for potentially good teachers to realize their potential through additional support and development and encourage qualified teachers to teach in hard-to-staff schools. Highly effective teachers would receive national recognition and, conditional on service in high-poverty schools, a substantial salary bonus and a portable credential. (Brown Center on Education Policy at Brookings, March 2010)...

The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher: Collaborating for Student Success - 2009 - This survey examines the views of teachers, principals and students about respective roles and responsibilities, current practice and priorities for the future. The survey findings were released as a series during the first quarter of 2010 with the following parts:

  • Part 1-Effective Teaching and Leadership
  • examines views about responsibility and accountability and what collaboration looks like in schools;
  • Part 2-Student Achievement
  • examines views on student goals, teacher expectations and increasing student achievement;
  • Part 3-Teaching as a Career
  • examines collaboration in the context of teacher professional growth, experience level and career path. (MetLife, 2010) ...

    What Keeps Good Teachers in the Classroom? Understanding and Reducing Teacher Turnover - Several studies have attempted to identify why teachers leave and how to stem their turnover, but few have identified the quality of teachers who are departing. This brief explores the costs associated with teachers leaving the profession and their schools, the characteristics of those likely to leave, and what can be done to prevent unnecessary and costly turnover. (Alliance for Excellent Education, February 2008) ...

    Recruiting and Retaining Quality Teachers for High Needs Schools: Insights from NBCT Summits and Other Policy Initiatives - Studies consistently show that teachers who are better trained, more experienced and licensed in the subjects they teach are more likely to be teaching in more affluent schools, serving more academically advantaged students. The same is true for teachers who generate higher student test scores as well as those who earn National Board Certification. Addressing the maldistribution of qualified teachers may be the most vexing public school problem facing America’s policymakers today. (Barnett Berry, Melissa Rasberry and Alice Williams, National Strategy Forum, 2007)...

    Frozen Assets: Rethinking Teacher Contracts Could Free Billions for School Reform - This report investigates eight common provisions found in teacher contracts that are costly and do not affect student performance. The results of this study suggest that reallocation of monies spent in these provisions may allow the education dollar to stretch further to work on improving student achievement. (Marguerite Roza, Education Sector, January 2007) ...

    Teacher Attrition and Mobility: Results from the 2004-05 Teacher Follow-up Survey - Teacher attrition is a major concern in many regions throughout the nation, and this report used a follow-up survey to the Schools and Staffing Survey data to track the movement of teachers from 2003-2005. Among a wealth of other data, it found that 8% of public school teachers and 14% of private school teachers left the profession citing control and workload management as benefits of their new positions. (John Marvel, Deanna Lyter, Pia Peltola, Gregory Strizek and Beth Morton, National Center for Education Statistics, January 2007)...

    The Cost of Teacher Turnover in Five School Districts: A Pilot Study - The costs of teacher turnover in five districts are reported in this paper. The rate of turnover; the relationship between turnover and teacher and school characteristics; and the costs associated with recruiting, hiring, and training replacement teachers are examined. Evidence that turnover costs, although difficult to quantify, are found to be significant at both the district and the school level. Teachers also left high- minority and low-performing schools at significantly higher rates. (Gary Barnes, Edward Crowe and Benjamin Schaefer, National Commission on Teaching and America's Future, 2007) ...


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