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Teaching QualityRecruitment and RetentionSelected Research & Readings (Additional Resources)
 
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Race to the Top: Promising Approaches to Achieving Teacher-Related Goals (Goal 3) MS Word PDF - (Jennifer Dounay, Education Commission of the States, March 2009)...

Progress of Education Reform: Teacher Supply and Demand PDF - This issue of The Progress of Education Reform focuses on the imbalances between teacher supply and demand – in certain subjects and certain school districts – attributable largely to significant numbers of teachers leaving their jobs for reasons other than retirement. It summarizes recent research including an analysis of urban district hiring practices, and their effect on applicant attrition and teacher quality, and an examination of the role of teacher turnover in school staffing problems, and the extent to which school characteristics and organizational conditions contribute to teacher turnover. (Suzanne Weiss, The Progress of Education Reform, vol. 6, no. 4, Education Commission of the States, August 2005)...

Qualified Teachers for At-Risk Schools: A National Imperative PDF - The goal of this report is to discuss what we know and don’t know about the challenge of staffing at-risk schools, and to identify some of the strategies that policymakers and other key stakeholders can consider in their efforts to ensure students in all schools have the high-quality teachers they need and deserve. (National Partnership for At-Risk Schools, February 2005)...

Teacher Perceptions of the Work Environment in Hard-to-Staff Schools MS Word - In May 2003, the Education Commission of the States (ECS) identified 272 “hard-to-staff” schools and evaluated the impact of various education policies on teachers in these schools. This analysis incorporates data from state and federal sources to show whether school characteristics and teacher perceptions of the work environment in hard-to-staff schools differ from those in schools not considered (“nondesignated”) as hard to staff. (Elizebeth Glennie and Charles R. Coble, Education Commission of the States, November 2004)...

WANTED: A National Manpower Policy for Education MS Word - This paper urges the federal government to create a national education manpower program to meet the ambitious goals of having a "highly qualified" teacher in every classroom, as required by the No Child Left Behind Act, and of narrowing the achievement gap between disadvantaged and advantaged students. The paper's blueprint is modeled heavily on the federal government's medical manpower programs, as well as successful teacher programs in states such as Connecticut and North Carolina and in school districts such as New York City and San Diego. This paper is one of eight in a series exploring the appropriate federal, state and local roles in a number of areas (including standards, assessment and accountability and school choice) in light of the states-rights provisions of the 10th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. (Linda Darling-Hammond and Gary Sykes, Education Commission of the States, July 2003)...

Improving Teacher Quality Around the World: The International Summit on the Teaching Profession - This document discusses lessons shared during a two-day event held in New York City in March 2011. The summit marked the first-ever convening of education ministers, teachers, and union leaders from high-performing and rapidly improving countries and regions. Discussions were framed around four overarching themes: teacher recruitment and preparation; development, support, and retention of teachers; teacher evaluation and compensation; and teacher engagement in reform. Plans are already underway to convene a second international summit in spring 2012. (Asia Society, March 2011)...

Transforming the Recruitment, Retention, and Renewal Of Our Nation's Mathematics and Science Teaching Workforce - This report addresses the critical shortage of high quality mathematics and science teachers, the lack of which threatens the strength, innovation and productivity of America's economy. The report proposes a comprehensive action plan to elevate the status of the teaching profession and focuses on transforming three key components that contribute to a robust, world-class teaching workforce: recruitment, retention and renewal. (Business Higher Education Forum, 2007) ...

New Research Finds School Hiring and Support Practices Fall Short - This press release highlights research revealing that many schools are not organized to hire and support new teachers in ways that help them enter the profession smoothly and attain early success. The report studies four states – California, Florida, Massachusetts and Michigan – and selected findings include: (1) 33% of new teachers are hired after the school year has already started, and 62% are hired within 30 days of when they start teaching; (2) only 50% of new teachers interview with any of their future teacher colleagues as part of the hiring process; and (3) 56% report that no extra assistance is available to them as new teachers. (Harvard Graduate School of Education, April 2003)...

Recruiting and Retaining Teachers for Hard-to-Staff Schools - Although states have maintained a focus on recruiting and retaining teachers, many schools and districts still face daunting challenges in ensuring a qualified and competent teaching corps. States are experimenting with numerous strategies for recruiting and retaining teachers, and some of them are trying particularly to help hard-to-staff schools. This issue brief suggests strategies to help meet the needs of chronically hard-to-staff schools and retain quality teachers. It recommends governors should consider short- and long-term efforts to: (1) evaluate and assess current strategies by collecting, analyzing, and using better data; (2) offer a flexible package of financial incentives to meet different local needs, possibly including substantial changes to traditional pay structures; (3) track, analyze, and improve teacher working conditions, including ensuring strong school leadership, time for teachers to develop their teaching craft, and sufficient materials and resources to teach effectively; and (4) improve preparation and support for beginning teachers. Also included are specific examples of retention practices from several states. (Barnett Berry and Eric Hirsch, NGA Center for Best Practices, 2005)...

The Facts – and Fictions – About Teacher Shortages - This paper argues that predictions of an impending teacher shortage in the United States are not accurate for the nation as a whole, although certain geographic and subject areas currently do – and will continue to – experience shortages. The authors contend that policymakers need to focus more on how to retain the good teachers that have been recruited, trained and hired, instead of seeking ways to find a way to prepare more teachers. Recommendations include: (1) strengthening preparation, induction and mentoring programs, with attention to high-demand areas; (2) offering financial incentives for high-need areas; (3) offering alternative certification programs aimed at high-need areas; and (4) intensified recruitment efforts and partnerships between teacher preparation programs and school districts. (American Association of State Colleges and Universities, May 2005)...

Why Do High-Poverty Schools Have Difficulty Staffing Their Classrooms with Qualified Teachers? - Drawing from the large national Schools and Staffing Survey and the Teacher Follow-up Survey, the researcher observes that while student enrollments (and the attendant need for teachers) have grown since 1984, pre-retirement turnover — and not student enrollment and teacher retirement increases, as commonly assumed — is the primary cause for hiring new teachers. The report points out that while some teacher turnover is normal and inevitable, it also can lead to a deterioration in social cohesion and, subsequently, performance. The author reports the reasons teachers cite for leaving the profession and their frequency in rural vs. urban high-poverty schools, the policy implications of teacher turnover and recommendations from teachers leaving the classroom on ways to stem the exodus. Their suggestions? Better student discipline ranked high among urban educators, while better pay was cited by rural and urban teachers alike. (Richard M. Ingersoll, University of Pennsylvania, November 2004)...

Status of Substitute Teachers: A State-by-State Summary - This section of the National Education Association Web site includes information provided by NEA Affiliates regarding substitute teachers....

Is There Really a Teacher Shortage? - This report summarizes research investigating the possibility that there are other factors behind school staffing problems besides a shortage of teachers. Using data from the Schools and Staffing Survey and its supplement, the Teacher Followup Survey, conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics, the authors find school staffing problems are primarily due to a "revolving door" – where large numbers of qualified teachers depart their jobs for reasons other than retirement. The data show that the amount of turnover accounted for by retirement is relatively minor compared to other factors such as teacher job dissatisfaction and teachers pursuing other jobs. This report concludes: these issues must be addressed, and teacher recruitment programs alone will not solve the staffing problem. (Richard M. Ingersoll, Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy, The Consortium for Policy Research in Education, September 2003)...


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