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At-Risk (incl. Dropout Prevention)Drugs/AlcoholSelected Research & Readings (Additional Resources)
 Selected Research & Readings

At-Risk (incl. Dropout Prevention)

ONDCP MEDIA CAMPAIGN Contractor’s National Evaluation Did Not Find That the Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign Was Effective in Reducing Youth Drug Use - Between 1998 and 2004, the U.S. Congress appropriated over $1.2 billion to the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) for the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, which aimed to prevent the initiation of or curtail the use of drugs among youth. In 2005, Westat, Inc. completed a multiyear national evaluation of the campaign. This report assesses (1) how Westat provided credible support for its findings; (2) their findings about the attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of youth and parents toward drug use; and (3) youth self-reported drug use. The report recommends that congress consider limiting appropriations for the campaign until ONDCP provides credible evidence of a media campaign approach that effectively prevents and curtails youth drug use. (U.S. Government Accountability Office, August 2006) ...

Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use - Drug use among adolescents remains a top public concern, in addition to a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This report presents the first results from a 2004 nationwide survey of nearly 50,000 8th-, 10th- and 12th-grade students, examining frequency of drug use by specific drug and by grade level, as well as examining trends in use. Also available online is the full-length report in two parts, Volume I, dealing specifically with secondary students; Volume II, which deals with college students and adults age 19-45; and Demographic Subgroup Trends for Various Licit and Illicit Drugs 1975-2004, that serves a supplement for Volume I by providing figures that graphically display the cross-time trends for the various demographic subgroups. (Lloyd D. Johnston, Patrick M. O'Malley, Jerald G. Bachman and John E. Schulenberg, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2005)...

Youth Drinking Rates and Problems: A Comparison of European Countries and the United States - It is a commonly held perception that American young people drink more frequently and experience more alcohol-related problems than do their European counterparts. This report compares data between the United States and 35 European countries, and finds that: (1) a greater percentage of young people from nearly all European countries report drinking in the past 30 days; (2) for a majority of these European countries, a greater percentage of young people report having five of more drinks in a row; and (3) a great majority of the European countries have higher intoxication rates among young people than the United States and less than a quarter had lower rates or equivalent rates to the United States. (Joel Grube, The Underage Drinking Enforcement Training Center, May 2005)...

Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: A Longitudinal Analysis Through Young Adulthood - Smoking results in more deaths each year in the United States than alcohol, cocaine, heroin, AIDS, suicide, homicide, motor vehicle accidents and fires combined, and it is estimated that about 80% of smokers have their first cigarette before they turn 18. This paper utilizes data on a nationally representative cohort of 1988 8th graders over a 12-year period, providing information about the incidence of daily smoking at various time-points and identifies and examines several specific developmental patterns. Selected findings: (1) two-thirds of teen and teen/young adult smokers reported smoking daily as adults; and (2) individuals were more likely to be teen/young adult smokers if they were from a family with a lower socioeconomic status or if they were not from a two-parent family. (David C. Miller, National Center for Education Statistics, June 2005)...

Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility - This electronic book is the result of a congressional mandate to develop scientifically based recommendations on how to most effectively reduce and prevent underage drinking. The work provides background on the characteristics and consequences of underage drinking, as well as a chapter that seeks to shed light on the social, cognitive, personality and other individual differences that lead some adolescents to begin drinking. Eight categories of programs or interventions were identified, with a chapter devoted to each. (Richard J. Bonnie and Mary Ellen O’Connell, editors, National Research Council Institute of Medicine, The National Academies Press, 2004)...

Preventing Drug Use Among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide for Parents, Educators, and Community Leaders, Second Edition - This report provides guidance on information and design elements that prevention programs – provided through families, schools or communities – should incorporate. Offering background on the factors that place youth at risk for drug use, as well as when and how children begin using drugs, the authors propose guiding principles for communities to tailor the content, structure and delivery of drug-use programs for local needs, assess community need and readiness, and build public will to carry out and evaluate a research-based prevention program. Examples of research-based drug-abuse prevention programs geared to elementary, middle and high school students are provided, as are listings of relevant federal and private organizations and recommended readings. (Elizabeth B. Robertson, Susan L. David, and Suman A. Rao, National Institute on Drug Abuse, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, October 2003)...

What You Need to Know About Drug Testing in Schools - A June 2002 decision by the U.S. Supreme Court expanded the authority of public schools to test students participating in competitive extracurricular activities for drugs. This paper discusses the negative consequences of drug use by adolescents, the benefits of drug testing programs and lists the various methods of drug testing and the strengths and weaknesses of each. The paper also offers advice on the creation of drug testing programs, advising that as much of the community as possible – even opponents of the plan – should be involved in the design and implementation of any program and that effective programs should stress confidentiality of results and seek to rehabilitate those found using drugs, not merely punish them. (Office of National Drug Control Policy, September 2002)...

Attention Disorder Drugs: Few Incidents of Diversion or Abuse Identified by Schools - At Congressional request, the General Accounting Office has provided information and analysis on (1) the diversion and abuse of attention deficit disorder drugs in public schools, (2) the school environment in which the drugs are administered to students and (3) the state laws or regulations addressing the administration of prescription drugs in schools. Concern has arisen that the increasing use of medications in school might provide additional opportunities for drug abuse, however, middle and high school principals reported little diversion or abuse of attention disorder drugs. Thirty-seven states and the District of Columbia have either statutes, regulations or mandatory policies addressing the administration of medication to students. (General Accounting Office 01-1011, September 14, 2001)...

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