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TechnologyEquitable AccessSelected Research & Readings (Additional Resources)
 
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 Selected Research & Readings
 




An American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Funding Opportunity: Redesigning Remedial and Developmental Education MS Word PDF - This ECS Alert describes the various sources of ARRA funds and offers suggestions for how states and postsecondary institutions might use this funding for one-time investments in education technology and curriculum development. Such investments would help meet the education and training needs of the growing dislocated worker population while also increasing the long-term level of institutional productivity. (Bruce Vandal, Education Commission of the States, June 2009) ...

Technology: Equitable Access in Schools MS Word - While technology has the potential to improve education for disadvantaged students, it also could be a divisive factor if inequities persist along lines of race, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. As high-paying jobs increasingly call for computer skills, those without access to or understanding of computers will not be able to compete. The gap between rich and poor will widen unless steps are taken to ensure all students can participate in the information age. (Education Commission of the States, September 1998)...

Internet Access in U.S. Public Schools and Classrooms: 1994-2005 - This report presents 11 years of data from 1994 to 2005 on Internet access in U.S. public schools by school characteristics. It provides trend analysis on the percent of public schools and instructional rooms with Internet access and on the ratio of students to instructional computers with Internet access. The report contains data on the types of Internet connections, technologies and procedures used to prevent student access to inappropriate material on the Internet, and the availability of hand-held and laptop computers to students and teachers. It also provides information on teacher professional development on how to integrate the use of the Internet into the curriculum, and the use of the Internet to provide opportunities and information for teaching and learning. (John Wells, Laurie Wells and Bernard Greene, National Center for Education Statistics, November 2006)...

Computer and Internet Use by Students in 2003 - This report examines the use of computers and the Internet by American children enrolled in nursery school and students in kindergarten through 12th grade. The report examines the percentage of individuals in the population who are users, the ways in which students use the technologies, where the use occurs (home, school and other locations) and the relationships of these aspects of computer and Internet use to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics such as students' age and race/ethnicity and their parents' education and family income. An important finding is that schools appear to help narrow the disparities between different types of students in terms of computer use. Differences in the rates of computer use are smaller at school than they are at home when considering such characteristics as race/ethnicity, family income and parental education. (Matthew DeBell and Chris Chapman, National Center for Education Statistics, September 2006) ...

Digital Equity in Education - This study examined digital equity in education with data from 70,382 students in 3,479 schools and 40 states. Selected findings: (1) students in rural schools or schools with higher percentages of African American students were likely to have less access to computers; (2) girls and low-income students were more likely to use computers more frequently when they are available in the classroom; and (3) having computers available in a lab increases the likelihood of higher levels of computer use. The results suggested that no more than 5% of the variance in computer access can be attributed to state factors, and less than 1% of the variance in computer use was between states. The findings suggested that where student technology standards are integrated into subject-area standards, computer use was likely lower than in other states. In states where pre-service teachers must meet technology-related requirements to receive their teaching credential and states where funds earmarked for technology are distributed as competitive grants, computer use was likely to be higher. (Jonathan D. Becker, Education Policy Analysis Archives, February 2006)...

Rates of Computer and Internet Use by Children in Nursery School and Students in Kindergarten through Twelfth Grade: 2003 - This issue brief describes the percentages of students in grades 12 or below who used computers or the Internet in 2003. Data are disaggregated by enrollment level, sex, race/ethnicity, disability status, parental educational attainment, household language, poverty status and family income. Overall, 91% of students used computers and 59% used the Internet, and use begins at a young age, with 67% of nursery school students and 80% of kindergarteners using computers and 23% of nursery school students and 32% of kindergarteners using the Internet. (National Center for Education Statistics, October 2005...

Measuring Digital Opportunity for America's Children: Where We Stand and Where We Go from Here - Information and communications technology (ICT) has spread faster than any previous communications invention, affecting nearly every aspect of children's lives. This report: (1) summarizes what has been learned about the impact technology can have on children's lives to improve well-being, opportunity and success; (2) provides an accountability tool that paints a picture of progress in providing these measurable technology-enabled opportunities to young people; (3) identifies the children and young adults who are missing out on certain benefits technology can offer; and (4) offers recommendations about what can be done to maximize these ICT-driven opportunities for youth, make more cost-effective investments in ICT and provide digital opportunities to all children. (Wendy Lazarus and Andrew Wainer, The Children's Partnership, June 2005)...

Are We Really A Nation Online? Ethnic and Racial Disparities in Access to Technology and Their Consequences - This report examines whether there are large ethnic and racial differences in home access to computers, the Internet and broadband in the United States. The author finds evidence suggesting that home computers increase school enrollment, high school graduation and grades, while decreasing school suspension and criminal activities. Selected findings include: (1) the digital divide is large and does not appear to be disappearing soon – African Americans and Latinos are much less likely to have access to home computers than are white, non-Latinos; and (2) income differences are partly, but not entirely responsible for ethnic and racial disparities in computer and Internet access. (Robert W. Fairlie, University of California, Santa Cruz and National Poverty Center, University of Michigan, September 2005)...

Computer Technology in the Public School Classroom: Teacher Perspectives - Based on a 2000-2001 survey, this three-page brief reports on the types of classroom technology teachers believe to be essential to their teaching, along with teachers’ perspectives on whether technology is sufficiently available in their classrooms. Responses on the availability of technology were disaggregated by teacher assignment (elementary, secondary subject area), hours of professional development for computers and other indicators. Fifty-seven percent of all survey respondents agreed that computers and other technology for their classrooms were sufficiently available. (Lawrence Lanahan and Janet Boysen, Education Statistics Services Institute, National Center for Education Statistics, March 2005)...

Computer and Internet Use by Children and Adolescents in 2001 - This report examines the overall rate of computer and Internet use by American 5-to-17-year-olds, computer use at home vs. school, the activities youth are engaged in on home computers and on the Internet, where youth access the Internet (public library, home, etc.) and more. Data on all indicators are disaggregated by a variety of demographic categories. One finding: the purposes for which children and teens used home computers varied considerably by individual, family and household characteristics, with the children of the least educated parents 53% less likely than those of the most educated parents using home computers to connect to the Internet. (Matthew DeBell and Chris Chapman, National Center for Education Statistics, October 2003)...

Internet Access in U.S. Public Schools and Classrooms: 1994-2002 - Based on a survey of over 1,200 public schools in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, this report offers statistics organized under the areas of (1) school connectivity; (2) student access to computers and the Internet; (3) school Web sites; (4) technologies and procedures to prevent student access to inappropriate material on the Internet; and (5) teacher professional development on how to integrate use of the Internet into the curriculum. According to the report, in fall 2002 99% of U.S. public schools were connected to the Internet and “there have been virtually no differences in school access to the Internet by school characteristics since 1999.” In addition, the ratio of public school students to instructional computers with Internet access dropped from 12.1 in 1998 to 4.8 in 2002. (Anne Kleiner and Laurie Lewis, National Center for Education Statistics, October 2003)...

Internet Access in U.S. Public Schools and Classrooms: 1994-2003 - This report provides an excellent background on Internet access in schools nationwide, with statistics grouped around the areas of (1) school connectivity; (2) student access to computers and the Internet; (3) school Web sites; (4) technologies and procedures to prevent student access to inappropriate material on the Internet; and (5) teacher professional development on how to integrate use of the Internet into the curriculum. The report states that in 2003, nearly 100% of public schools and 93% of classrooms had Internet access, while 8% of all public schools provided students with laptop computers. Public schools more likely to lend laptops to students were secondary schools, those with fewer than 300 pupils and rural schools. (Basmat Parsad and Jennifer Jones, National Center for Education Statistics, February 2005)...

Home Computers and Internet Use in the United States: August 2000 - The proportion of households with computers has increased more than fivefold since the Census Bureau began collecting data on computer ownership in 1984. This report offers a quick look at the trends and characteristics of computer use in the United States. The report asserts that schools "level the playing field" by giving computer access to children who have no computers at home. It includes information according to income level, ethnicity, age, educational attainment and region. (U.S. Department of Commerce, September 2001)...


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