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English Language Learner/BilingualSelected Research & Readings (Additional Resources)
 
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What the Research Says - Bilingual Education MS Word - Throughout the country the needs of language minority and immigrant students are being met in a variety of ways. In this document ECS has compiled and highlighted several reports that provide data and research results on bilingual education programs and studies. The role of the federal government in providing resources also is examined. (ECS, December 2001)...

Educating English Language Learners at the High School Level: A Coherent Approach to District- and School-Level Support - As more ELL enter schools across the country, it becomes increasingly more important for states to provide the appropriate guidance and support to local education agencies so ELLs are able to graduate and succeed after high education. Recommendations are made for both the state and the school level. (National High School Center, April 2009)...

Selected States' Responses to Supporting High School English Language Learners - Closing the achievement gap between English language learners and other student groups is critical to ensuring the academic success of the approximate 2.4 million ELL students in the United States. Improving data collection, assessment, instruction and accurate reporting of academic achievement results are crucial. (Nanette Koelsch, National Higher School Center, April 2009)...

Dual Language Learners in the Early Years: Getting Ready to Succeed in School - This paper summarizes research on best practices in preparing young English Language Learners (ELLs) for school. Topics include sources for demographic data, environmental conditions and critical skills that support school readiness and success, screenings and assessments. (National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition, November 2008)...

Addressing Achievement Gaps: The Language Acquisition and Educational Achievement of English-Language Learners - A compilation of presentations at a symposium on English-language learners cosponsored by ETS and the National Council of La Raza focuses on what works in acquiring a second language, educational achievement and testing for English language learners. In terms of equity and economics, the issue is crucial, said ETS CEO Kurt Landgraf, because leaving behind 25 percent of students in terms of education and opportunity would be a “disaster for this country.” The presenters asserted that high-quality preschool and dual language practices are good for all children. Presenters went on to talk about high schools that work every well, teacher support and test accommodations. (Amanda McBride, ETS Evaluation and Research Center, Summer 2008)...

The Cognitive Consequences of Early Bilingualism - This article reviews the benefits of fostering bilingualism in young children. Among the benefits discussed are greater self-regulation skills. findings that show that bilingual children are better than their monolingual peers at regulating their thoughts and behaviors and at learning words that have overlapping meanings. Article discusses the benefits of bilingualism in young children. (Hanako Yoshida, Zero to Three, 2008) ...

Challenging Common Myths About Young English Language Learners - Using evidence from neuroscience, research on language development, and program evaluations, this brief from the Foundation for Child Development promotes research-based strategies for educating young English Language Learners. Specifically, the author dispels six common myths about this population and how best to work with them. (Linda M. Espinsoa, Foundation for Child Development, January 2008)...

Latino Language Minority Students in Indiana: Trends, Conditions and Challenges - 2008 - A survey of conditions for Spanish-speaking students in Indiana’s schools identifies problems and challenges for improving their learning - inadequate training for teachers, for example, a high teacher-student ratio and a disproportionately high number of special education referrals. A review of Indiana-based research is included which indicates that there are many positive aspects to the learning situations of Spanish-speaking students, but too often these students are segregated for more “effective instruction” or concentration of resources. Segregation contributes to relations with English-speaking peers that are sometimes fraught with misunderstanding and ridicule; teachers and administrators do little to communicate a sense of belonging for all. The “funds of knowledge” approach of Moll, Gonzalez and Amanti is offered as a possible reform to meet the challenges of educating Latino language minority students. (Bradley Levinson, Katie Bucher, Lauren Harvey, Rebecca Martinez, Becky Perez, Russell Skiba, Bryn Harris, Peter Cowan and Choong-Geun Chung, The Center for Evaluation and Education Policy, 2008)...

Promoting ELL Parental Involvement: Challenges in Contested Times - Research has shown that parental involvement in education increases student achievement, attendance and decreases dropout rates; yet parents of English language learners (ELLs) face a number of barriers to involvement in their child’s school. This brief analyzes the characteristics of ELLs and their parents, barriers to family engagement and characteristics of parental involvement models. (M. Beatriz Arias and Milagros Morillo-Campbell, Education and the Public Interest Center, Arizona State University, January 2008)...

Selected State and Local Policies to Support Immigrant and Limited English Proficient Early Care and Education Provider - This brief describes promising state and local policies that support early care and education providers who are from immigrant backgrounds or have limited English proficiency. (Center for Law and Social Policy, 2007)...

Latino Language Minority Students in Indiana: Trends, Conditions, and Challenges - This Special Report surveys existing conditions for Latino language minority students in Indiana’s schools and identifies the most significant problems and challenges for improving their learning. The report opens with an overview of recent demographic shifts in Indiana’s K-12 student population, and makes an important distinction between Indiana’s long-standing and newcomer Latino populations; the latter account for the dramatic increase in the language minority population.(Bradley Levinson, Katie Bucher, Lauren Harvey, Rebecca Martínez, Becky Pérez, Russell Skiba, Bryn Harris, Peter Cowan and Choong-Geun Chung, Center for Evaluation and Education Policy, August 2007)...

How Far Behind in Math and Reading are English Language Learners? - Based on the 2005 National Assessment of Educational Progress, this report compares standardized test scores of English language learner (ELL) students with white, black and Hispanic students. The data suggests ELL students are among the farthest behind in standardized testing, with about 51% of 8th grade ELL students behind whites in reading and math. Other data show significant gaps between ELL 4th graders and their white peers, and smaller, but considerable gaps compared to black and Hispanics students. The report also examines characteristics of limited English speaking students of different grade levels. (Richard Fry, Pew Hispanic Center, June 2007)...

Double the Work: Challenges and Solutions To Acquiring Language and Academic Literacy for Adolescent English Language Learners - This report argues that English language learners must work twice as hard in order to meet the same accountability standards as their native English-speaking peers. The report recommends several techniques and strategies for overcoming the challenges to improving the literacy of English language learners. (Deborah J. Short and Shannon Fitzsimmons, Alliance for Excellent Education, 2007) ...

No Child Left Behind Act: Education's Data Improvement Efforts Could Strengthen the Basis for Distributing Title III Funds - Title III of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) designates federal funds to support the education of students with limited English proficiency and provides for formula-based grants to states. This report describes the data the U.S. Education Department used to distribute Title III funds and implications for allocating funds across states. In addition, the report describes changes in federal funding to support these students under NCLB and how states and school districts used these funds, as well as Title III oversight and support to states. The report recommends that the department provide clear instructions to states on how and where to provide data on the number of students with limited English proficiency, develop and implement a methodology for determining which is the more accurate sources of data, and seek authority to use statistical methodologies to reduce the volatility associated with the data.(Government Accountability Office, December 2006)...

Practical Guidelines for the Education of English Language Learners Research-based Recommendations for Instruction and Academic Interventions - This document provides evidence-based recommendations for policymakers, administrators and teachers in K-12 settings who seek to make informed decisions about instruction and academic interventions for English language learners. The domains of focus include reading and mathematics, and the recommendations apply to both a class-wide instructional format and individualized, targeted interventions, depending on the population and the goals of the instruction. (Center on Instruction, November 2006) ...

Successful Bilingual Schools: Six Effective Programs in California - This study identifies schools with successful bilingual education programs and documents their success. The goal is to illustrate that bilingual schools are capable of providing opportunities for students to achieve and sustain high levels of academic excellence even when faced with challenges such as poverty and a lack of students’ English proficiency upon entering school. The report contains six case studies, each describing the bilingual program of a successful elementary school in California. Located in San Diego, Los Angeles and Ventura counties, all schools enrolled large numbers of Spanish-speaking English learners. (San Diego County Office of Education, October 2006) ...

Who’s Left Behind? Immigrant Children in High and Low LEP Schools - This report provides a statistical portrait comparing elementary schools with high concentrations of limited-English-proficient (LEP) students, to schools with fewer or no LEP students to examine differences that may affect schools’ abilities to meet No Child Left Behind requirements. The report focuses on three critical components: the characteristics of the schools themselves, their principals and their teachers. Selected findings include: (1) LEP students are highly concentrated in a few schools; (2) on average, principals in high-LEP schools have less education and training than those in other schools; and (3) teachers in high-LEP schools report having less academic preparation than their low-LEP and no-LEP counterparts. (Clemencia Cosentino de Cohen, Nicole Deterding and Beatriz Chu Clewell, The Urban Institute, September 2005)...

Policymaker Perspectives on the Inclusion of English Language Learners with Disabilities in Statewide Assessments - This paper presents results from interviews with state policymakers from the assessment, special education and English language learner (ELL) divisions of 14 state departments of education. The interviews were intended to gather perceptions of how ELL students with disabilities are being included and accommodated for in-state testing. (Martha L. Thurlow, Michael E. Anderson, Jane E. Minnema and Jennifer Hall-Lande, National Center on Educational Outcomes, August 2005)...

The New Demography of America's Schools: Immigration and the No Child Left Behind Act - The demographics of U.S. elementary and secondary schools are changing rapidly as a result of record-high immigration, and these demographic shifts are occurring alongside implementation of No Child Left Behind. This report explores how immigration is changing the profile of the nation’s elementary and secondary student population during this era of reform. (Randy Capps, Michael Fix, Julie Murray, Jason Ost, Jeffrey S. Passell and Shinta Herwantoro, The Urban Institute, 2005)...

A Look at the Progress of English Learner Students - The 2002 California English Language Development Test documents the progress of more than 1.3 million English learner students in the state. This reports summarizes student achievement as measured by the test and evaluates the rate at which students' English skills improve. On the whole, student progress is slow, although some groups of students appear to make rapid progress. (Paul Warren, California Legislative Analyst's Office, February 2004)...

English Language Learner Students in U.S. Public Schools: 1994 and 2000 - This two-page brief examines trends in the number of English language learners (ELLs) enrolled in U.S. public schools in the 1993-94 and 1999-2000 school years. Data are provided for the numbers of ELLs overall and the percent of all students these learners represent, both for the nation overall and by region (Northeast, Midwest, South and West). According to this brief, the West serves more than half of the nation’s English language learners, while nearly 62% of ELLs were in schools in which they comprised less than 1% of the student body. (David Meyer, David Madden and Daniel J. McGrath, National Center for Education Statistics, August 2004)...

English Language Learners: Boosting Academic Achievement - This brief examines what the research says about the most effective methods of teaching reading to English language learners. Recommendations for state policymakers also are provided. (Research Points, American Educational Research Association, Winter 2004)...

Language Minorities and Their Educational and Labor Market Indicators -- Recent Trends - This report provides a wealth of information, including trend data from 1979 through 1999, on U.S. children and young adults who speak a language other than English at home. The data include background on language characteristics (i.e., which native languages were spoken and how well language minorities were able to speak their native language and English); elementary and secondary enrollment; high school completion; postsecondary enrollment; educational attainment; and such economic indicators as family income and employment/occupation. A few interesting facts from the report: A majority of language minority youth and young adults were born in the United States. Language minority youth and young adults were more likely to be in low-income families than those from families who spoke only English at home. Spanish speakers represented at least 71% of all language minorities as of 1999. (Steven Klein, Rosio Bugarin, Renee Beltranena and Edith McArthur, National Center for Education Statistics, June 2004)...

The Language of Opportunity: Expanding Employment Prospects for Adults with Limited English Skills - This report presents a demographic portrait of adults in the United States with limited English proficiency and their situation in the workforce and society. The authors identify workforce training program components that have had a positive impact on these adults’ job and income prospects, and provide recommendations on developing programs to meet the unique needs of this sector of the workforce, as well as recommendations for state and federal policy. The appendix offers brief descriptions of different types of local programs nationwide that are effectively serving the needs of adults with limited English skills. An eight-page policy brief also is available. (Heide Spruck Wrigley, Elise Richter, Karin Martinson, Hitomi Kubo and Julie Strawn, Center for Law and Social Policy, August 2003)...

Effective Reading Programs For English Language Learners - Identifying the most effective method to teach English language-learner students reading skills is a controversial issue, with two solutions dominating the debate: bilingual education and immersion. This report argues that some empirical evidence suggests, in the small number of existing high-quality studies, that bilingual programs – especially paired bilingual strategies that teach reading in the native language and English at the same time – produce superior results when compared to immersion programs. The authors also contend that more high-quality long-term research is necessary before a definitive answer can be found. Overall conclusions begin on page 40. (Robert E. Slavin and Alan Cheung, Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk, December 2003)...

Meeting the Needs of Students With Limited English Proficiency - By synthesizing existing research, this report explores the amount of time English-language-learners (ELL) students need to become proficient in English. It also outlines the approaches used to teach ELL students and what requirements each state is expected to meet according to the Department of Education’s Office of Civil Rights. Among its findings are that 76% of ELL students receive English-based instruction (such as English as a second language), while 40% receive bilingual instruction focused on teaching curriculum in the student’s home language (such as teaching math in Spanish). (General Accounting Office, February 2001)...


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