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No Child Left BehindSupplemental ServicesSelected Research & Readings (Additional Resources)
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 Selected Research & Readings

Remediation (K-12)

Supplemental Educational Services under NCLB: Charting Implementation - This brief examines trends in the implementation of the No Child Left Behind supplemental educational services program over five years. The report is based on data collected from six states and 11 districts within those states that enrolled large numbers of minority and low-income students. (Gail Sunderman, The Civil Rights Project/Proyecto Derechos Civiles, UCLA, October 2007)...

No Child Left Behind Act: Education Actions May Help Improve Implementation and Evaluation of Supplemental Educational Services - Only 20% of eligible students take advantage of supplemental services (SES) offered under No Child Left Behind. This report discusses early implementation of SES, including how (1) participation changed in recent years; (2) providers work with districts to deliver services; (3) states monitor and evaluate SES; and (4) the U.S. Department of Education monitors and supports SES implementation. (Government Accountability Office, April 2007) ...

No Child Left Behind Act: Education Actions Needed to Improve Implementation and Evaluation of Supplemental Educational Services - NCLB requires districts with schools receiving Title I funds that have not met state performance goals for three consecutive years to offer low-income students enrolled in these schools supplemental educational services (SES), such as tutoring. This report discusses early implementation of SES, including: (1) how SES participation changed in recent years, (2) how providers work with districts to deliver services, (3) how states monitor and evaluate SES and (4) how the U.S. department of education monitors and supports SES implementation. The report recommends that the department of education clarify guidance and disseminate information on promising practices, consider expanding flexibility and clarifying state authority over program design and collect information on district SES expenditures and provide evaluation assistance. Also available are report highlights. (U.S. Government Accountability Office, September 2006) ...

SES in Action: A Toolkit for Parents and Community Leaders - Although growing numbers of children from low-income families are getting free tutoring through the Supplemental Educational Services (SES) program part of No Child Left Behind large numbers of eligible students have not yet signed up. Early evidence suggests that families in many districts don't know about SES, are receiving confusing or limited information about their tutoring options, or need help choosing the best provider for their child. This guide is intended to help community leaders build excitement and understanding of SES, with sections on: (1) SES basics; (2) taking action; and (3) resources. (American Institutes for Research, July 2005)...

Supplemental Educational Services Non-Regulatory Guidance - This document is a useful reference regarding supplemental education services required under No Child Left Behind, with sections addressing: (1) general supplemental services information; (2) information state education agency responsibilities; (3) local education agency responsibilities; (4) provider responsibilities; and (5) funding. This is an update of a 2003 document that provides responses to inquiries made since 2003 and revisions to previous questions. (U.S. Department of Education, June 2005)...

Will Disadvantaged Students Benefit from a Free Market in Tutoring Services? - No Child Left Behind (NCLB) requires districts to provide support programs for students in struggling schools and prohibits districts not making adequate yearly progress from providing tutoring services themselves. This has created a thriving private market for supplemental education services (SES) programs. This brief outlines who is eligible to receive tutoring services and whether students have meaningful choices in addition to summarizing the role and potential impact of private tutoring companies. The authors expect the market for SES services to grow as parents become more aware of their entitlements under NCLB. (Clive R. Belfield and Chad d'Entremont, American School Board Journal, May 2005)...

Innovations in Education: Creating Strong Supplemental Educational Services Programs - This report identifies five districts Forsyth County, GA; Los Angeles; Rochester, NY; San Diego; and Toledo, OH successfully providing supplemental educational services (SES) as required by the No Child Left Behind Act. The authors point out essential components in offering SES, namely (1) embracing the spirit of SES; (2) building relationships with providers; (3) reaching out to inform parents; (4) setting clear goals and tracking progress, and presenting specifics on how the five districts went about addressing these elements. The authors likewise indicate actions state departments of education can take to assist districts in meeting their obligation to provide SES. (Office of Innovation and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education, May 2004)...

Supplemental Educational Services: Non-Regulatory Guidance - This document provides guidance on supplemental educational services, which refer to additional academic instruction designed to increase the academic achievement of students in low-performing schools. These services may include academic assistance such as tutoring, remediation and other education interventions, provided that such approaches are consistent with the content and instruction used by the local education agency and are aligned with the state's academic content standards. (U.S. Department of Education, August 22, 2003)...

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