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Accountability--Sanctions/Interventions
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Race to the Top: Promising Approaches to Assisting the Lowest-Performing Schools (Goal 4) MS Word PDF - (Jennifer Dounay, Education Commission of the States, March 2009)...

School Restructuring Via the No Child Left Behind Act: Potential State Roles PDF - This ECS Issue Brief describes alternative roles available to the states in implementing NCLB's restructuring requirements. In addition to discussing why states should play a role in implementing NCLB's restructuring requirements, the brief discusses three potential roles that states may take in restructuring – mildly-, moderately- or highly-active – depending on local considerations. (Todd Ziebarth and Bryan Hassel, Education Commission of the States, November 2005)...

State Involvement in School Restructuring Under No Child Left Behind in the 2004-05 School Year PDF - No Child Left Behind (NCLB) requires that if a school does not make adequate yearly progress (AYP) for five consecutive years, its district must create a plan to restructure the school and implement the plan on the sixth year of not making AYP. This brief examines how 13 states have been involved in the planning and implementation of school restructuring, and how their experience can serve others states in understanding how the restructuring process works and how it may evolve in the future. (Rebecca Wolf DiBiase, Education Commission of the States, September 2005)...

Closing Low-Performing Schools and Reopening Them as Charter Schools: The Role of the State MS Word PDF - This paper suggests that states consider incorporating into their broader restructuring efforts an option that allows policymakers and administrators – selectively and wisely – to close down chronically low-performing schools and reopen them as charter schools. It explores the challenges and potential benefits of this option, as well as the roles that states can play in its implementation. (Todd Ziebarth, Education Commission of the States, September 2004)...

Restructuring Schools in Baltimore: An Analysis of State and District Efforts - According to this report, the state and district restructuring initiatives in Baltimore have produced mixed results in terms of gains in student academic performance. Nevertheless, these initiatives provide practical lessons regarding the process of restructuring. For example, reinforcing decades of research on effective schools, the key policy leaders involved with restructuring in Baltimore identified principals and teachers as the essential forces driving successful schools. This study also found that the supporting conditions that are critical to enabling strong principals and teachers to succeed include school autonomy over budgets, personnel, and curriculum and instruction. Available online are the case study and policy brief. (Lauren Morando Rhim, Education Commission of the States, July 2004)...

Call to Restructure Restructuring: Lessons From the No Child Left Behind Act in Five States - This study synthesizes findings from research on NCLB restructuring in five states with relatively large numbers of schools in restructuring. These states were chosen because they had well-established accountability systems that allowed them to identify schools for restructuring earlier than many other states. In addition, these states represent a variety of geographic areas. They also conducted in-depth case studies of 19 districts with schools in restructuring in these states and 42 schools within these districts. The research looked at restructuring at the state level through school year 2007-08. The analysis yielded several key findings about NCLB restructuring at the national, state and local levels. (Caitlin Scott, Center on Education Policy, 2008)...

Making Mid-Course Corrections: School Restructuring in Maryland - This report describes findings from case studies of 10 Maryland schools undergoing restructuring in accordance with No Child Left Behind. Replacing school staff and using turn-around specialists were the most common approaches, but did not have a significant, positive affect on student performance. This report also examines implementation issues related to school restructuring. (Brenda Newman-Sheldon, Center on Education Policy, December 2007)...

Education Should Clarify Guidance and Address Potential Compliance Issues for Schools in Corrective Action and Restructuring Status - Nationwide, 2,790 Title I schools were in corrective action or restructuring status under NCLB in 2005-06. These schools were located mostly in urban areas and a few states. A significant number of schools were not taking the corrective actions required by NCLB and, quite often, districts were not providing these schools with the required assistance. Based on these findings, this report recommends that the U.S. Department of Education provide clearer guidance to schools, districts and states regarding corrective action requirements. (Government Accountability Office, September 2007)...

Easy Way Out -- "Restructured" Usually Means Little Has Changed - While many schools have been identified as needing improvement under No Child Left Behind, only a small percentage have failed to make progress for long enough -- six years -- to be subject to restructuring. In 2005-06, there were some 1,750 schools in 42 states facing this level of sanction. Few of these schools, however, underwent the most drastic restructuring options -- conversion to a charter school, state takeover, or contracting with a private management company to operate the school. Most schools opted for the "other major restructuring" option. In some cases, more radical reforms might not be the most appropriate or effective approach, suggests the author of this policy brief. (Sara Mead, Education Next, Winter 2007)...

Extreme Makeover: Two Failing San Diego Schools Get New Start as Charters - Two San Diego, California schools faced restructuring under No Child Left Behind and opted to convert to charter schools, a seldom used approach under the law. This policy brief provides a case study of these two schools and lessons learned from their experiences. (Joe Williams and Thomas Toch, Education Sector, November 2006)...

Leading for Learning - This special pullout section is the third annual Education Week report examining leadership in education, a topic of critical concern at a time of ever-increasing expectations for schools. It includes a mix of explanatory articles and research findings analyzed by the Editorial Projects in Education Research Center. Its three current objectives are: (1) strengthen education leadership to improve student achievement; (2) enhance out-of-school learning opportunities; and (3) expand participation in arts and culture. (Education Week, September 2006) ...

Can Failing Schools Be Fixed? - This report examines three interventions into failing schools: the Schools Under Registration Review process in New York, comprehensive school reform in Memphis, Tennessee, and school reconstitution in Prince George’s County, Maryland. The author writes that in each of these cases roughly half or fewer of the schools that were subject to the intervention showed real improvement when gauged in terms of student achievement. The author tells policymakers not to be overwhelmed by the number of intervention strategies available and to be patient, as it may be several years before even a successful intervention shows results. (Ronald C. Brady, Thomas B. Fordham Foundation, January 2003)...


Selected Research & Readings Current

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