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Postsecondary Institutions and Price of Attendance in 2011-12; Degrees and Other Awards Conferred: 2010-11; and 12-Month Enrollment: 2010-11 - This First Look presents preliminary data findings from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) fall 2011 collection, which included three survey components: Institutional Characteristics for the 2011-12 academic year, Completions covering the period July 1, 2010, through June 30, 2011, and data on 12-Month Enrollment for the 2010-11 academic year. (NCES, July 2012)...

How Parents and the Public Look at Higher Education Today - As a new generation of students approach college, new pressures color public attitude on higher education. This report provides insight into how the American public perceives higher education. The report shows a mixed response. Respondents stressed the importance and existing quality of higher education while also voicing uneasiness over the rising costs. Despite the financial concerns, most parents reported that they will “find a way” to afford college, and particularly in minority families, they reported a lack of college opportunity. From a leadership perspective, the report explains that while broad support for reform exists, policy makers are without a consensus on the course of that reform. (John Immerwahr, Paul Gasbarra, Jean Johnson, Amber Ott and Jonathan Rochkind, The Public Agenda for the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, May 2007)...

Hitting Home: Quality, Cost, and Access Challenges Confronting Higher Education Today - The multi-year Making Opportunity Affordable initiative aims to provide research, tools, and support to help states and institutions transform how they deliver postsecondary education to serve more students without reducing quality. This report touches on changing workforce demands, underlying problems with higher education, the degree gap and what needs to be done to improve higher education systems. (Travis Reindl, Making Opportunity Affordable, March 2007.)...

The Future of Private Loans - There are many options for financing postsecondary education, including government grants and loans, institutional aid, private scholarships and private loans. This report examines recent developments in the private loan industry, the characteristics of private loan borrowers and trends that might impact the growth of private loans in the future. (Courtney McSwain, Derek Price and Alisa Cunningham, Institute for Higher Education Policy, December 2006) ...

Breaking through the Barriers to College - Many students in low-income or minority groups do not realize the availability and accessibility of financial aid and college education. In fact, as shown by the six challenges detailed in this report, many of the processes and much of the preparation involved in attaining and financing higher education actually act as barriers, preventing many students and their families from finding out that college is available to them. Included are suggestions for parents, students, community, and schools. (Mari Luna de la Rosa and William Tierney, USC Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis, October 2006) ...

Mortgaging Our Future: How Financial Barriers to College Undercut America's Global Competitiveness - This report argues that America’s global competitiveness depends on the ability of our high school graduates to earn at least a bachelor’s degree. As in recent decades, financial barriers are a major factor in preventing large numbers of college-qualified students from earning a bachelor’s degree, particularly those from low- and moderate-income families. This report follows by focuses on how financial barriers created by rising college prices and insufficient need-based financial aid undercut bachelor’s degree attainment in the United States. (The Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, September 2006) ...

Promise Abandoned: How Policy Choices and Institutional Practices Restrict College Opportunities - This report criticizes trends in federal, state and college practices that discourage low-income and minority students from enrolling and graduating from college. Financial aid is increasingly being awarded to middle- and upper-income students, at the expense of poor young people, and too few low-income and minority students graduate from college once they’ve entered. The report notes that despite the perception of progress, gaps in college-going and college completion for poor and minority students are actually wider than they were thirty years ago. (Kati Haycock, The Education Trust, August 2006) ...

Student Financing of Undergraduate Education: 2003-04 - This report provides detailed information about undergraduate tuition and total price of attendance at various types of institutions, the percentage of students receiving various types of financial aid and the average amounts that they received. Selected finding include: (1) in 2003-04, 75% of all full-time undergraduates received some type of financial aid, with 50% taking out student loans ($6,200 average), and 62% receiving grants ($5,600 average); (2) the average tuition and fees for full-time undergraduates in 2003-04 were $2,000 at public 2-year, $5,400 at public 4-year and $18,400 at private not-for-profit 4-year institutions; (3) the total price of attendance for full-time undergraduates was $10,500 at public 2-year, $15,200 at public 4-year, and $28,300 at private not-for-profit 4-year institutions; and (4) after subtracting all financial aid (including loans), the average out-of-pocket net price of attendance for full-time low-income dependent undergraduates was $6,000 at public 2-year, $5,600 at public 4-year and $9,200 at private nonprofit 4-year institutions. (Lutz Berkner and Christina Chang Wei, National Center for Education Statistics, August 2006) ...

Dealing With Debt: 1992–93 Bachelor’s Degree Recipients 10 Years Later - Student loans have become an increasingly important source of financial aid for college students. The first part of this report describes the undergraduate borrowing patterns of 1992–93 bachelor’s degree recipients and their graduate enrollment and additional borrowing through 2003. The second part examines the repayment of undergraduate loans for bachelor’s degree recipients who had no additional degree enrollment, providing details on how many had finished repaying their loans by 2003, who were still repaying and how much, what their debt burden was, and how they had managed their Stafford loan repayment over the 10-year period. (Susan P. Choy, Xiaojie Li and C. Dennis Carroll, National Center for Education Statistics, June 2006) ...

Perceptions of College Financial Aid Among California Latino Youth - This policy brief discusses findings of a survey of California Latino youth perceptions of college financial aid that revealed: 98% of respondents felt it was important to have a college education; 38% of respondents did not feel the benefits of college outweigh the costs; not being able to work and incurring debt were the opportunity costs associated with going to college; over half of all respondents erroneously thought students have to be U.S. citizens to apply for college financial aid; few respondents could accurately estimate the cost of attending either the University of California or the California State University; and there is a lack of familiarity with government grants for education. The following policy implications are discussed: (1) delivery of translated financial aid information is not sufficient, (2) misperceptions about the affordability of college need to be addressed, and (3) greater awareness about government loan and grant programs is needed. (Maria Estela Zarate and Harry P. Pachon, The Tomas Rivera Policy Institute, June 2006) ...

Affordability of Postsecondary Education: Equity and Adequacy Across the 50 States - As the cost of college continues to rise in state after state, policymakers are increasingly concerned with the affordability of a postsecondary education. This report from the Center for American Progress argues that decreases in the purchasing power of the federal Pell Grant, the institution of financial aid policies that benefit middle and upper-income students and the rising cost of higher education in the United States have created disparities in access and financial equity across the country. The report measures these disparities across the states, paying special attention to tuition increases and the availability of need-based financial aid. Despite claims to the contrary, the author concludes that steep tuition hikes have not been adequately offset by a corresponding increase in financial aid for low-income students. Numerous data tables explaining enrollment and funding patterns are also included. (Edward P. St. John, Center for American Progress and Institute for America's Future, 2005)...

Financing Higher Education - Throughout the world, financing of higher education is immensely sensitive politically, although there has been widespread acceptance of two core objectives, both for their own sake and for reasons of national economic performance: (1) strengthening quality and diversity; and (2) improving access. According to the author, economic theory argues for a three-part strategy to better meet the needs of society and student: (1) deferred variable fees; (2) income-contingent loans; and (3) active measures to promote access. The author examines higher education finance reforms in Britain in 1998 and 2004, discussing lessons learned, possible applications to other nations and the state of higher education finance in several other nations. (Nicholas Barr, Finance & Development, June 2005)...

How Latino Students Pay for College PDF - Although the percentage of Latino students receiving financial aid for college is at an all-time high, Latinos receive the lowest average federal aid awards of any racial or ethnic group, receiving an average financial aid award of $6,250, compared to the national average of $6,890 in 2003-04. This brief argues that Latinos rely heavily on federal aid – and on grants in particular – because they are more likely to be first-generation college students and to have relatively low family incomes. The brief offers a profile of Latino undergraduates along with an overview of Latino undergraduates participating in financial aid, and has sections on: (1) grants; (2) loans; (3) federal financial aid; (4) state financial aid; and (5) institutional aid. Policy recommendations at the federal, state/local, institutional and K-12 community levels are listed, starting on page 23. (Excelencia in Education and the Institute for Higher Education Policy, August 2005)...

The Student Aid Gauntlet: Making Access to College Simple and Certain - This report from the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance offers recommendations for simplifying the student aid process, thereby making college more accessible to a broader range of students. Recommendations include creating a system of early financial aid information, making the federal needs analysis consistent and fair and simplifying the verification process. (Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, January 2005)...

Trends in College Pricing 2005 - This report, based on the College Board’s Annual Survey of Colleges, provides updated information on tuition and other expenses associated with attending public and private nonprofit institutions of postsecondary education in the United States. It finds that the rate of increase in tuition across the country is higher in the 2000s than during the previous two decades. During the 2005-06 school year, tuition at public four-year and two-year colleges rose 7.1% and 5.4%, respectively, continuing a 20-year trend of tuition increases. It argues that while wealthy families can keep pace with the rising cost of tuition at postsecondary institutions, low-income and middle-class families increasingly struggle to afford a college education. (The College Board, 2005)...

Trends in Student Aid 2005 - Annual data is presented in this publication on the amount of financial assistance – grants, loans and work study – available to help students pay for postsecondary education. The most recent report finds the rate of growth of private student loans was higher during the 2004-05 academic year than the rate of growth of any other type of student aid, including federal loan programs. The report also details how the number of Pell Grant recipients increased by only 3% during the same academic year, after growing at an average rate of 8% over the preceding three years. (The College Board, 2005)...

A Decade of Undergraduate Student Aid: 1989-90 to 1999-2000 - During the 1990s, tuition at colleges and universities rose faster than median household income. This study from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) describes many of the changes that took place in undergraduate student financial aid during this same period, including the re-authorization of the Higher Education Act in 1992, which increased the availability of federal student loans. In addition to the report's narrative, numerous charts, tables and data points are available for those who wish to conduct further analysis of this issue. (Christina Chang Wei, Xiaojie Li, Lutz Berkner and C. Dennis Carroll, NCES, 2004)...

Trends in College Pricing 2004 - This report, based on the College Board’s Annual Survey of Colleges, provides updated information on tuition and other expenses associated with attending public and private nonprofit institutions of postsecondary education in the United States. It finds that during the 2004-05 school year, tuition at public four-year and two-year colleges rose 10.5% and 8.7%, respectively, continuing a 20-year trend of tuition increases. It argues that while wealthy families can keep pace with the rising cost of tuition at postsecondary institutions, low-income and middle-class families increasingly struggle to afford a college education. (The College Board, 2004)...

Trends in Student Aid 2004 - Annual data is presented in this publication on the amount of financial assistance – grants, loans and work-study – available to help students pay for postsecondary education. The most recent report finds that while the amount of financial aid students received in 2004-05 actually increased, the gap between need-based and merit-based aid is growing, and loans are replacing grants as the primary form of student financial aid. (The College Board, 2004)...

When Saving Means Losing: Weighing the Benefits of College-savings Plans - In recent years college-savings plans, or "529 plans," have become a popular tool used by students and families to combat the rising costs of a college education. This report analyzes the effects of college-savings plans on four family income levels and concludes that these plans may actually decrease the affordability of a postsecondary education. Low-income students, in particular, can see a reduction in the amount of need-based aid they receive if they choose to invest in a college-savings plan. The authors argue there needs to be better alignment of the outcomes of college-savings plans with the intentions of those who created and support them. (Roberto M. Ifill and Michael S. McPherson, The Lumina Foundation, July 2004) ...

College Affordability In Jeopardy - While state spending on higher education dropped significantly in 2002, tuition and fees at postsecondary institutions rose. This report is the first to look at what has happened to public tuition and fees, state appropriations for higher education, state student financial aid, and personal income for fiscal years 2002 and 2003. Data is broken down on a state-by-state basis, giving policymakers a comprehensive view of the current state of college affordability. (The National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2003) ...

Getting Ready to Pay for College: What Students and Their Parents Know About the Cost of College Tuition and What They Are Doing to Find Out - Families often overestimate the cost of college tuition at four-year public institutions, according to this study. The study also found that the failure of some families to research the cost of higher education can discourage students from preparing for college. (Laura J. Horn and Xianglei Chen, MPR Associates, Inc. & Chris Chapman, National Center for Education Statistics, September 2003)...

Losing Ground: A National Status Report on the Affordability of American Higher Education - This report documents the declining affordability of higher education for American families and highlights public policies that support affordable higher education. It finds that while state support of public postsecondary education has increased, tuition has increased more, making a college education less affordable than ever before. Providing state-by-state summaries as well as national findings, this report features some of the most current data regarding postsecondary affordability. (The National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2002)...

Study of College Costs and Prices, 1988-89 to 1997-98 - This report on college costs and prices presents the findings of a study mandated by Congress as part of the 1998 Amendments to the Higher Education Act. The study examines the relationship between costs and prices at groups of public and private nonprofit institutions, and explores the potential association between financial aid and tuition. (Alisa F. Cunningham, Jane V. Wellman, Melissa E. Clinedinst and Jamie P. Merisotis, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, February 2002) ...

The Affordability of Higher Education: A Review of Recent Survey Research - A review of survey research conducted by Public Agenda for The National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, to supplement the Losing Ground report finds that Americans are opposed to approaches that reduce access to college either by raising tuition or admitting fewer students. They are more sympathetic to approaches that emphasize greater contributions from the state or savings by colleges themselves. The report also notes that the public has not thought through the complexities of higher education financing. (John Immerwahr, Public Agenda, May 2002)...

The Policy of Choice: Expanding Student Options in Higher Education - The upcoming reauthorization of the Higher Education Act has placed the goals and effectiveness of federal Title IV student aid programs at the forefront of the higher education policy debate. Critical to the debate are the role of federal student aid in promoting access, choice and affordability despite rising college tuitions and increasing numbers of disadvantaged students. This primer updates key data and lays out the past and present issues of college choice, and discusses the goals of federal student aid and the effectiveness of federal aid programs in meeting them. (Alisa Federico Cunningham, Institute for Higher Education Policy, August 2002)...

Trends In College Pricing 2002 - This report, based on the College Board’s Annual Survey of Colleges, provides updated information on tuition and other expenses associated with attending public and private nonprofit institutions of postsecondary education in the United States. It finds that the inflation-adjusted increase of 8.4% in 2002-03 is the largest increase in college tuition in 20 years. It argues that while wealthy families can keep pace with the rising cost of tuition at postsecondary institutions, low-income and middle-class families increasingly struggle to afford a college education. (The College Board, 2002) ...

Trends in Student Aid 2002 - Annual data is presented in this publication on the amount of financial assistance – grants, loans and work-study – available to help students pay for postsecondary education. The most recent report finds that while the amount of financial aid students received in 2001-02 actually increased, the gap between need-based and merit-based aid is narrowing and loans are replacing grants as the primary form of student financial aid. (The College Board, 2002) ...

What Students Pay for College: Changes in Net Price of College Attendance Between 1992-93 and 1999-2000 - This NCES report examines the most recent trends in the net price of college attendance (price includes tuition, living expenses and other nontuition costs), analyzing changes in various measures of net price between 1992-93 and 1999-2000. Despite increases in tuition, once all grant aid combined (including federal, state and institutional aid) was subtracted from the total price of attendance, low-income students did not pay a higher price on average in 1999-2000 than they did in 1992-93. In almost all cases, however, middle- and high-income students did pay more on average to attend in 1999-2000 than in 1992-93. (Laura Horn, Christina Chang Wei, Ali Berker, NCES, 2002)...

Middle Income Undergraduates: Where They Enroll and How They Pay for Their Education - This NCES report examines the characteristics of dependent middle-income undergraduates who attended college full-time, full-year, and how they paid for their education. It also compares these undergraduates with their lower and higher income counterparts, and examines strategies that middle income undergraduates might have used to meet the gap between financial aid and financial need. The report also looks at how students filled the gap between price of attendance and the amount of financial aid they received (out-of-pocket costs). (Jennifer B. Presley and Suzanne B. Clery, National Center for Education Statistics, July 2001)...


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