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P-3 Health and Mental HealthSelected Research & Readings (Additional Resources)
What States Are Doing
Selected Research & Readings

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Preschool Depression: Homotypic Continuity and Course Over 24 Months - Researchers examining more than 300 three to six year olds concluded that depression can be a chronic condition for young children. (Archives of General Psychiatry, 2009)...

Evidence-Based Social-Emotional Curricula and Intervention Packages for Children 0-5 Years and Their Families - This brief from the Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention discusses the practice of "universal screening" to detect the need for social-emotional interventions with young children. It describes eight qualities of developmentally appropriate assessment and provides both guidelines for developing a screening program and profiles of sample instruments. (Diane Powell and Glen Dulap, Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention, June 2009)...

Beyond Health Care: New Directions to a Healthier America - The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Commission to Build a Healthier America identified high-quality early education and care programs for all children as the first step to improving health outcomes in the country. (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, April 2009)...

Early Learning Prevents Youth Violence - This report suggests that the 5 to 10 percent of young children who maintain highly aggressive behaviors as they grow older are at increased risk for school delinquency, criminal behavior, substance abuse and unemployment. To mitigate these long-term risks, the report advocates creating home and early learning environments that help children manage their behaviors and emotions. (Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development, November 2008)...

Children’s Cortisol and the Quality of Teacher-Child Relationships in Child Care - In this study of 10 child care centers, researchers examined four-year-olds' levels of cortisol, an indicator of stress, during the course of the day and during one-on-one interactions with the teacher after performing a mildly challenging task outside of class. The study identifies trends in stress-levels for the young students throughout the day....

Developmental Screening and Assessment Instruments with an Emphasis on Social and Emotional Development for Young Children Ages Birth through Five - This compilation from the National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center includes almost 40 early childhood (birth through age five) developmental screening and assessment instruments. The instruments are categorized by whether they address multiple domains of development or whether they focus on social emotional development. Each instrument comes with a description and information about the age range for which it is appropriate, the time needed to administer the instrument, how scoring works, and who should conduct the screening. (Sharon Ringwalt, National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center, May 2008)...

Implementing Policies to Reduce the Likelihood of Preschool Expulsion - This policy brief seeks to identify the program characteristics associated with higher pre-k expulsion rates and the policies that can lead to lower expulsion rates. It notes that having more children per teacher, longer class days, and teachers with higher stress levels are associated with greater expulsion rates. Rather than expelling children, the brief recommends better supports for teachers, including more access to early childhood mental health consultants. The author also recommends larger investments in data collection on pre-k expulsion and in research on how family involvement, teacher training, and programs supporting children with special needs before the pre-k years can help reduce expulsions. (Walter Gilliam, Foundation for Child Development, January 2008)...

Preschoolers Benefit from Mental Health Screening - This article describes a new early childhood mental health screening instrument called ABLE, which provides teachers and parents a simple and inexpensive way to identify children who need more specialized attention because of behavioral and emotional challenges. (Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, January 2008)...

Behavioral Interventions Effective for Preschoolers with ADHD - A study funded by the National Institute of Mental Health and conducted by Project Achieve at Lehigh University shows that non-medical treatments of young children (three to five years old) with ADHD symptoms can be effective. The study randomly assigned 135 children enrolled in center- or school-based early education programs to two groups. In one, parents attended education workshops on child development and parenting and in the other, parent workshops were supplemented by more individualized interventions. Children in both groups made significant, and similar, gains in behavioral, social, emotional, and pre-literacy skills. (National Institute of Mental Health, August 2007)...

Can Child Care Impact Risk for Depression? - This brief about the Carolina Abecedarian Projects shows that participants, at 21 years of age, reported fewer symptoms of depression than the control group. (FPG Child Development Institute, May 2007) ...

Promoting Children’s Social and Emotional Development Through Preschool - This policy report describes the importance of social and emotional development of children, reviews the evidence that high-quality preschool can promote social and emotional development, and describes characteristics of programs most likely to benefit children. (National Institute for Early Education Research, March 2005)...

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