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P-3 KindergartenSelected Research & Readings (Additional Resources)
What States Are Doing
Selected Research & Readings
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 Full-Day Kindergarten

P-3 Child Care
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Progress of Education Reform: Kindergarten PDF - While much research has been conducted over the past 25 years on the effects of full- versus half-day kindergarten programs, definitive answers remain elusive. Recent research, however, including an extensive study tracking a national sample of children who began kindergarten in 1998, has helped shed light on the subject. This edition of Progress of Education Reform examines key findings of this new research. (Dale DeCesare, The Progress of Education Reform, vol. 5, no. 4, Education Commission of the States, September 2004)...

Improving Urban Student Achievement through Early Childhood Reform: What State Policymakers Can Do MS Word - Despite research evidence for the effectiveness of early childhood education, urban children in general begin school lagging significantly behind their suburban peers in cognitive, language and social development. These differences are likely to be exacerbated as children move through their school years. This report provides suggestions for ways state policymakers can support reform in early learning in urban districts. Suggestions include understanding all early care and education services within an urban area, planning and coordinating funding and services for early learning, supporting stronger regulations and teacher certification requirements and funding professional development for teachers. (Sharon Lynn Kagan, Education Commission of the States, February 2004)...

Early Childhood Assessment MS Word PDF - This ECS Issue Brief addresses the issues policymakers need to consider before assessing young children (birth to kindergarten) to evaluate the effectiveness of early learning programs. (Jessica McMaken, Education Commission of the States, March 2003)...

Technology and Early Childhood Professional Development: A Policy Discussion PDF - In July 2002, the Education Commission of the States (ECS) and KnowledgeWorks Foundation sponsored the Technology and Early Childhood Professional Development conference. This report summarizes presentations and discussions from that meeting. It also includes recommendations, which were developed by meeting participants, that promote the use of technology to better prepare early childhood professionals. These recommendations, however, do not necessarily reflect the view of ECS or KnowledgeWorks Foundation. (Jessica McMaken, ECS, July 2002)...

Kindergarten Readiness Data: Improving Children’s Success in School - This Children Now brief asserts that a well-designed kindergarten-readiness assessment system that encompasses all major developmental domains in young children would benefit students and educators at the local level as well as administrators and policy makers at the district and state levels. The brief recommends that state leaders engage stakeholders to develop a common vision of what data are needed and what an assessment system should be and should not be used for, design a model assessment strategy, pilot the strategy and monitor its expansion, ensure that school readiness data are linked to the K-12 education data system, and make data accessible for teachers, parents, administrators, and policy makers. (Children Now, May 2009)...

PreK-3rd: What Is the Price Tag? - This brief offers a framework for estimating the costs of doing Pre-K-3rd. It describes the core elements, and the steps to cost out each element based on district needs. (Rima Shore, Foundation for Child Development, April 2009)...

Crisis in the Kindergarten: Why Children Need to Play in School - Recent studies point to the conclusion that kindergarten is in crisis and the same illness may be passed on to preschools and even to programs for children ages birth to three. The crisis is the disappearance of children’s play. This report concludes that kindergartners need a balance of child-initiated play in the presence of engaged teachers and more focused experiential learning guided by those teachers. (Alliance for Childhood, March 2009)...

Longitudinal Effects of the Arkansas Better Chance Program: Findings from Kindergarten and First Grade - In this study, researchers at that National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER) found mixed, though generally positive, pre-k outcomes. While children who attended pre-k, upon kindergarten entry, did significantly better than their peers on measures of vocabulary, basic reading skills, and early math skills, by the end of kindergarten the only evidence of significant impact was for vocabulary skills. Moreover, by the end of first grade, researchers found significant impact for early math and basic reading skills, but not for vocabulary. (The National Institute for Early Education Research, Rutgers University, May 2008)...

PK-3: An Aligned and Coordinated Approach to Education for Children 3 to 8 Years Old - This report argues that an aligned set of educational experiences from pre-kindergarten through 3rd grade (PK-3) has the potential to impact large numbers of children and save public dollars by reducing grade retention and special education placement while increasing college attendance and future earnings. The report discusses relevant research and proposes a theoretical framework for PK-3. (Kimber Bogard and Rudy Takanishi, Society for Research in Child Development, 2005)...

Full-day and Half-day Kindergarten in the United States: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 - This report describes the national trend toward full-day kindergarten. It provides background on the schools, both public and private, that offer full-day and half-day kindergarten programs, the children who attend them and their educational progress. It finds a positive association between full-day kindergarten and achievement in reading and math. (Jill Walston and Jerry West, National Center for Education Statistics, June 2004)...

Research Link: When Children Aren't Ready for Kindergarten - This article examines the research on the effects of delayed kindergarten entry and kindergarten retention. The author examines research that suggests that older kindergartners were more likely to persist at tasks, more eager to learn and better able to pay attention. (John H. Holloway, Educational Leadership, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, April 2003)...

Reducing the School Performance Gap Among Socio-economically Diverse Schools: Comparing Full-day and Half-day Kindergarten Programs - This report examines the outcomes of Maryland's Montgomery County early learning success program, which included the expansion of full-day kindergarten. (John C. Larson, Montgomery County Public Schools, May 2003) ...

Recent Research on All-Day Kindergarten - This report summarizes recent research on the effects of full-day kindergarten on academic achievement and social and emotional development. The author also addresses parents' and teachers' attitudes about full-day kindergarten and the curriculum used in full-day programs. (Patricia Clark, ERIC/EECE Clearninghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, June 2001)...

At What Age Should Children Enter Kindergarten? A Question for Policy Makers and Parents - This article summarizes the research available on the effects of kindergarten entrance age. The research indicates that the youngest children entering kindergarten do benefit from their experience in school and in fact learn at the same rate as children who are older when they enter school. The author states that the meaningful question is not whether a child is ready to learn, but rather what a child is ready to learn. She therefore advocates policies that focus not on what children need to know or be able to do when they get to school, but what schools need to do to meet the social and educational needs of children. (Deborah Stipek, Social Policy Report, Society for Research in Child Development, 2002)...

Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - A major federally sponsored research project to determine the impact of early childhood experiences on school performance and other indicators of child development, the project is following two cohorts of children: 22,000 children who entered kindergarten in fall 1998 who will be followed through 5th grade, and 15,000 babies born in 2000 who will be followed through 1st grade. An overview of the study is available at (National Center for Education Statistics, February 2000)...

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