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P-3 PreschoolSelected Research & Readings (Additional Resources)
 
  P-3 PRESCHOOL
 
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P-3
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Maximizing Reform in the Stimulus Bill: Supporting Effective Early Education MS Word PDF - Countless studies have shown that high-quality pre-kindergarten programs narrow achievement gaps and produce long-term gains in student learning and educational attainment. States have made substantial investments in pre-K and other early education programs over the past decade. But current state budget shortfalls threaten states’ progress in improving access to high-quality early education programs. This ECS Briefing Memo argues that the solution is to use ARRA funds to creatively support quality early education programs. (Sara Mead, The New America Foundation and the Education Commission of the States, May 2009)...

NCLB: Implications for Early Learning PDF - The goal of this brief is twofold: (1) to inform early learning educators and policymakers better about specific NCLB components, and (2) to begin to discern what implications – both positive and negative – NCLB holds for the early learning field. It includes sections on adequate yearly progress, highly qualified teachers, and reading and literacy. (Kristie Kauerz and Jessica McMaken, Education Commission of the States, June 2004)...

The State of Preschool 2009: State Preschool Yearbook--Executive Summary - Findings for the 2008-09 school year confirmed worries about the effects of the recession on state prekindergarten. This was the first year to be influenced by the recession, and the researchers found a slow down in progress in all three key dimensions that are evaluated--access, quality standards and resources. (W. Steven Barnett, Dale Epstein, Allison Friedman, Rachel Sansanelli and Jason Hustedt, National Institute for Early Education Research, April 2010) ...

Education Reform Starts Early - This report examines the experience of New Jersey’s effort to expand high-quality pre-k and integrate it into its early literacy and other school reform initiatives, especially P-3 alignment. (Sara Mead, New America Foundation, December 2009)...

Continued Impacts of New Mexico PreK on Children’s Readiness for Kindergarten - This report shows that New Mexico’s pre-k program has maintained its effectiveness even after having doubled in size between 2005 and 2008. Consistent with previous studies conducted during the program’s first two years, this report finds that children who attended pre-k in the 2007-08 school year made larger gains in early math and literacy skills than their peers who had not participated in the program. (National Institute for Early Education Research, September 2009)...

Jumpstart's Issues Brief: America's Early Childhood Literacy Gap - Report focuses on the gap in early literacy skills between children from low-income families and those who come from middle- and high-income families, as well as the lack of public awareness about early childhood literacy issues in the United States. Most Americans (95%) recognize that early childhood literacy is extremely important but only 18% are aware that children who lack early literacy skills do not catch up with their peers and are less likely to succeed as adults. (Laura Berk, Jumpstart, September 2009)...

Why Universal Preschool is Really a Labor Market Program - A high-quality, half-day preschool program for four-year-olds produces great benefits for the economy. The available research evidence suggests that such an investment would increase U.S. earnings far more than it would cost. (Timothy Bartik, Upjohn Institute, July 2009) ...

The Changing Landscape of Pre-K: Examining the Changes and Impacts of Quality Standards in Prekindergarten at the National, State, District and Program Levels - PowerPoint presentation giving a history of preschool, trends in both spending and access to preschool and the impacts of quality standards at the national, state, district and program levels. (National Institute for Early Education Research, June 2009)...

Improving Indicators of Child Well-Being - This report makes a number of recommendations on new directions for the development of child well-being indicators. The report follows a symposium on child well-being indicators held in December 2008, attended by leading experts from universities, government agencies, and nonprofit organizations. (Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago, 2009)...

Preschool Enrollment Among Latino Children in California - This brief examines barriers to enrollment to pre-k among Latino families in California. (Wealth Research Organization, 2009)...

Why Isn’t Johnny in Preschool? - This brief examines barriers to pre-k enrollment among low-income communities in Chicago. (Community Organizing and Family Issues, May 2009)...

Pre-K Counts in Pennsylvania for Youngsters’ Early School Success - This evaluation of a study from Pennsylvania, conducted by the University of Pittsburgh and the Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh, discusses how children, ages 3 to 5, who have undergone high-quality pre-k demonstrate significant gains in all cognitive and behavioral measures, with the impact being greater among children at-risk of developmental delays or behavioral problems. (Stephen Bagnato, Jennifer Salaway and Hoi Suen, Early Childhood Partnerships, 2009)...

PreK-3rd: What Is the Price Tag? - This brief offers a framework for estimating the costs of doing Pre-K-3rd. It describes the core elements, and the steps to cost out each element based on district needs. (Rima Shore, Foundation for Child Development, April 2009)...

Providing Preschool Education for All 4-Year-Olds: Lessons from Six State Journeys - This brief describes lessons learned by six different states – Florida, Georgia, Illinois, New York, Oklahoma, and West Virginia – in their pursuit of universal pre-k. The use of research, presence of political commitment, parental demand, and declining enrollment in public schools are factors that, the researchers argue, bolster efforts for pre-k expansion. The brief also outlines questions that states contemplating a pre-k-for-all policy should consider. (National Institute for Early Education Research, March 2009)...

All Work and No Play Makes For Troubling Trend in Early Education - This article explores the importance of play in early learning. According to a researcher at the University of Illinois Champagne-Urbana, literacy and learning begin with imaginative play. She also suggests that too much structured learning can actually be counterproductive to a child's cognitive development and that the most important growth stems from problem solving, intellectual inquiry, and the ability to ask questions. (Science Daily, February 2009)...

The Pre-K Pinch: Early Education and the Middle Class - This report discusses limited access to pre-k programs among middle-class families, or “the pre-k pinch,” because many of them earn too much to qualify for state-funded early education programs but not enough to pay for private programs on their own. By looking at the 20 states that use family income as an important or the sole criterion in determining eligibility for pre-k, this report provides state-by-state data on middle-class families' household expenditures and estimates of children experiencing the “pre-k pinch.” In addition to the data provided, the report includes interviews with families. (PreK Now, November 2008)...

Preschool Education and Its Lasting Effects: Research and Policy Implications - This paper from the National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER) reviews the literature on the lasting effects of early education. Among the three types of early childhood programs reviewed -- child care, Head Start, and state- or locally-funded pre-k -- the paper finds that child care has the lowest impact on children in terms of cognitive gains. There is evidence, mostly from programs that serve low-income children, that Head Start and pre-k programs have more long-term benefits for children, such as higher graduation rates and fewer arrests as juveniles and adults. The paper also presents evidence from international studies and programs that serve infants and toddlers. (Education Policy Research Unit, September 2008)...

Effects of Preschool Curriculum Programs on School Readiness: Report from the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Initiative - The Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research initiative examined the impact of 14 curricula on 27 child outcome measures related to early reading skills, early math skills, language development, and behavior. The study also looked at the impact of curricula on classroom quality and instructional practices through classroom observations and teacher interviews. This report discusses findings for each curriculum and for each of the child-level and classroom-level outcomes measured. (National Center for Education Research, July 2008)...

Learning from the Experts: New Jersey Educators Talk About Implementing a Mixed Delivery Preschool Program - This brief from the Association for Children of New Jersey offers K-12 administrators lessons from their peers about how to collaborate with community-based providers to implement high-quality pre-k programs.(Laura Fasbach Donovan, Association for Children of New Jersey, May 2008)...

Longitudinal Effects of the Arkansas Better Chance Program: Findings from Kindergarten and First Grade - In this study, researchers at that National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER) found mixed, though generally positive, pre-k outcomes. While children who attended pre-k, upon kindergarten entry, did significantly better than their peers on measures of vocabulary, basic reading skills, and early math skills, by the end of kindergarten the only evidence of significant impact was for vocabulary skills. Moreover, by the end of first grade, researchers found significant impact for early math and basic reading skills, but not for vocabulary. (The National Institute for Early Education Research, Rutgers University, May 2008)...

Preschool Program Improves Cognitive Control - This study found that the experimental “Tools of the Mind” pre-k curriculum helped children develop more cognitive control than students in the control group. Using random assignment for the children and the teachers, researchers found that at the end of the second year of pre-k, children who experienced the experimental Tools of the Mind curriculum did better on tasks that demand the use of executive function (EF) skills than the control group did. Further analysis also showed that children's performance on EF-related tasks was correlated with early reading and math measures, suggesting that these skills help children academically. (Science Magazine, November 2007)...

Center Piece of the PreK Puzzle: Providing State Prekindergarten in Child Care Centers - This National Women's Law Center report examines the benefits and challenges for child care centers implementing state pre-k programs and identifies best practices that make these partnerships successful. Based on a series of interviews and discussions with center directors operating pre-k programs in 14 states, the report considers the key policies when implementing pre-k in child care centers: financing mechanisms and funding levels; teacher qualifications and compensation; identifying appropriate curricula and assessments; and collaborating with school districts around all of the above policies.(National Women's Law Center, November 2007)...

Who Goes to Preschool and Why Does it Matter? - National Institute for Early Education Research reviews early care and education enrollment data from 1991 to 2005 and analyzes trends by age groups, family income, racial backgrounds, geographic regions, and mothers’ education and employment status. (National Institute for Early Education Research, November 2007)...

A Science- Based Framework for Early Childhood Policy - The framework provides a concise overview of the scientific principles of early childhood and early brain development, along with an inventory of specific effectiveness factors associated with a variety of programs that enhance outcomes for vulnerable children. (Center for the Developing Child, August 2007)...

Pre-K for Military Families: Honoring Service, Educating Children - This report recommends that state policymakers help the children of our nation's military personnel meet the unique social, emotional, and education challenges of the military lifestyle by providing them with high-quality pre-k. (Pre-K Now and Military Child Education Coalition, July 2007) ...

The Abbott Preschool Program Longitudinal Effects Study - This report discusses the results of a rigorous study of New Jersey's Abbott Preschool Program. The study seeks to determine if the learning gains from the state prekindergarten program found in earlier research at kindergarten entry continued throughout the kindergarten year and assess the quality of Abbott classrooms. (Ellen Frede, Kwanghee Jung, W. Steven Barnett, Cynthia Esposito Lamy, and Alexandra Figuerasm, National Institute for Early Education Research, June 2007) ...

Better Outcomes for All: Promoting Partnerships between Head Start and State Pre-K - How can Head Start and state pre-kindergarten programs work together to better serve young children and their families? This report examines the answers, drawing on research and in-depth interviews with state pre-k program directors, Head Start collaboration coordinators, and providers of both Head Start and state pre-k programs. (Helene Stebbins and L. Carol Scott, Pre-K Now, January 2007)...

Effective Preschool Curricula and Teaching Strategies - This brief provides a blueprint for state and local policymakers, early learning administrators, teachers, families, community leaders and researchers to use effective preschool curricula and teaching strategies to help low-income young children close the achievement gap in early literacy and math to be ready for kindergarten like their more affluent peers.(Lisa Klein, National Center for Children in Poverty, January 2007)...

Educational Vouchers for Universal Pre-Schools - This article considers two issues regarding preschool education. First, it provides a brief set of arguments for government funding of universal, pre-school education. Second, it explores the applicability of a voucher plan using a regulated market approach for the funding of universal, pre-school education. Four criteria are used to assess the approach: freedom of choice, equity, productive efficiency and social cohesion. The analytic framework is then applied to the Georgia Pre-K program, a statewide and universal approach based upon market competition that enlists government non-profit, and for-profit educational providers. The authors conclude that, according to the four criteria set out, the highly regulated Georgia pre-school approach appears to produce superior results than one built upon exclusive production of pre-school services by government entities. (Henry M. Levin and Heather L. Schwartz, National Center for the Study of Privatization in Education, 2006) ...

Child Care and Early Childhood Education: More Information Sharing and Program Review by HHS Could Enhance Access for Families with Limited English Proficiency - Quality early care experiences can greatly improve the school readiness of young children. This report examines: (1) the participation of limited English proficient children in programs funded through the Child Care and Development Fund and Head Start, (2) the challenges these families face in accessing programs, (3) assistance that selected state and local entities provide to them and (4) actions taken by the department of Health and Human Services to ensure program access. Also available are report highlights and summaries in Spanish, Vietnamese, Korean and Chinese. (U.S. Government Accountability Office, August 2006) ...

A Diverse System Delivers for Pre-K: Lessons Learned in New York State - To provide pre-k services to more children, many states turn to 'diverse' or 'mixed' delivery, which uses both community-based and school sites. This report examines New York's successful model. (Betty Holcomb, Pre-K Now, July 2006) ...

Race Matters: Unequal Opportunities for School Readiness - This fact sheet offers a quick source for analysis and strategies related to issues of inequity surrounding school readiness. It is part of a series of documents in the "Race Matters Toolkit" designed to help decision-makers, advocates and elected officials get better results in their work. (Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2006)...

Ladders Of Learning: Fighting Fade-Out By Advancing PK-3 Alignment - This paper outlines the importance of having strong, well-aligned programs beginning in pre-kindergarten (PK) and extending through third grade (PK-3). It reviews the short-term impact of PK and full-day PK programs, then summarizes the evidence that these impacts may "fade out" by the primary grades. To fight fade-out, PK-3 alignment is proffered as one means to enable children to maintain and expand upon the gains they make in early childhood education. PK-3 suggests that PK experiences should be aligned with kindergarten and that kindergarten should be aligned with early elementary education. The paper closes with federal policy recommendations that provide both models and incentives for the nation, states and local school districts to institute and strengthen PK-3 alignment. (Kristie Kauerz, New America Foundation, January 2006)...

The Economic Promise of Investing in High-Quality Preschool: Using Early Education to Improve Economic Growth and the Fiscal Sustainability of States and the Nation - Tremendous financial benefits are what states and the nation will see by investing in early childhood education, according to this study from the Committee for Economic Development. It predicts a return of up to $2.25 for every dollar a state invests in prekindergarten education, and goes on to explain the myriad of other social and financial benefits the nation can expect if it prepares its children for school earlier. (Committee for Economic Development, 2006)...

PK-3: An Aligned and Coordinated Approach to Education for Children 3 to 8 Years Old - This report argues that an aligned set of educational experiences from pre-kindergarten through 3rd grade (PK-3) has the potential to impact large numbers of children and save public dollars by reducing grade retention and special education placement while increasing college attendance and future earnings. The report discusses relevant research and proposes a theoretical framework for PK-3. (Kimber Bogard and Rudy Takanishi, Society for Research in Child Development, 2005)...

Early Childhood Education: Investing in Quality Makes Sense - Today, nearly four out of five states invest in preschool programs. However, states’ financial commitment to early childhood education, their eligibility requirements, and the number of children who actually receive care vary widely, making high-quality and readily available state-funded preschool programs the exception rather than the rule. This brief examines components of effective programs and their benefits. (American Educational Research Association, Fall 2005)...

Early Developments - This issue of Early Developments examines four years of research by the National Center for Early Development and Learning (NCEDL) on public Pre-K classrooms, teachers and children. Findings are detailed in four articles: Pre-K in the States, How Is the Pre-K Day Spent?, Who Goes to Pre-K and How Are They Doing? and Who Are the Pre-K Teachers? What Are Pre-K Classrooms Like? (page 15). Additionally, a partial listing of publications by NCEDL researchers is provided. (Donna Bryant, Dick Clifford, Diane Early and Loyd Little, FPG Child Development Institute, March 2005) ...

Building the Foundation for Bright Futures - Two Reports - Both of these reports stem from the Task Force on School Readiness created during and continued after Governor Paul Patton’s 2002-2003 National Governors Association chairmanship. Building the Foundation for Bright Futures: Final Report of the NGA Task Force on School Readiness explains how readiness is an issue for multiple stakeholders – states, schools, communities, families and children – and provides recommendations on what states can do to help all stakeholders do their part in ensuring school readiness. The companion report, Building the Foundation for Bright Futures: A Governor’s Guide to School Readiness, draws from the task force recommendations and offers examples of what states are doing to build ready states and support ready schools, communities, families and children. (National Governors Association, January 2005)...

The Effects of Oklahoma’s Universal Pre-Kindergarten Program on School Readiness - In this study of a pre-k for all program in Oklahoma, researchers from the Center for Research on Children in the United States at Georgetown University report that students enrolled in the Tulsa pre-k program demonstrated an overall 52 percent gain in letter-word identification test score, a 27 percent gain in the spelling test score, and a 21 percent gain in the applied problems test score.(Georgetown University, November 2004)...

Lifetime Effects: The High/Scope Perry Preschool Study Through Age 40 (2005) - This publication summarizes and provides conclusions on the many findings of the High/Scope Perry Preschool study, including participants’ academic achievement, economic/employment status, arrest and incarceration history, health (including drug use) and family situation. The research suggests that the Perry Preschool program’s economic return to society was $17.07 per dollar invested, or $258,888 per participant on the investment of $15,166 per participant, in such areas as crime (88% of public return) and welfare savings, as well as the increased tax revenues from participants’ higher earnings. The author also provides answers to 14 FAQs about the study and its findings, among them: How can the study be generalized to other programs? Learn more about the High/Scope Perry Preschool Project on the project Web site. (Lawrence J. Schweinhart, High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, November 2004)...

A Benefit-Cost Analysis of the Abecedarian Early Childhood Intervention - Children who receive high-quality preschool care and education will make roughly $143,000 more over their lifetimes than other children, and save the school districts they attend $11,000 each by reducing the need for remedial education. This analysis of the Abecedarian Early Childhood Intervention project in North Carolina also found that the benefits of the program outweighed the costs by four dollars for every dollar spent. (Leonard N. Masse and W. Steven Barnett, National Institute of Early Education Research, 2002) ...


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