contact staff ecs twitter facebook
P-3 FinanceSelected Research & Readings (Additional Resources)
What States Are Doing
Selected Research & Readings

P-3 Child Care
P-3 Content Standards and Assessment
P-3 Data Systems
P-3 Early Intervention (0-3)
P-3 English Language Learners (ELL)
P-3 Ensuring Quality
P-3 Evaluation/Economic Benefits
P-3 Governance
P-3 Grades 1-3
P-3 Health and Mental Health
P-3 International Benchmarking
P-3 Kindergarten
P-3 Parent Engagement
P-3 Preschool
P-3 Principals/Leadership
P-3 Public/Private Partnerships
P-3 Special Ed./Inclusion
P-3 Teaching Quality/Professional Development
P-3 Technology

Federal Expenditures on Pre-Kindergartners and Kindergartners in 2008 - This report examines federal funding for children ages three through five and offers insights into how the federal government prioritizes their needs. The authors predict a temporary increase (2010) in federal spending for young children, but by 2012, such expenditures are expected to be lower than 2008 levels. (Urban Institute and Brookings, March 2010)...

A Tool to Examine State Child Care Subsidy Policies and Promote Stable, Quality Care for Low-Income Babies and Toddlers - This tool is designed to provide a policy framework that lays out ideas for increasing access for low-income babies and toddlers to high quality child care settings through state child care subsidy systems. (CLASP, November 2009)...

New Beginnings: Using Federal Title I Funds to Support Local Pre-K Efforts - This brief describes how to use federal Title I funding at the local level. It describes the range of activities that Title I can support, important issues for collaboration with community or state based providers, the process for determining/allocating funds, and case studies of school districts that have successfully used Title I to support pre-k. (Pre-K Now, September 2009)...

PreK-3rd: What Is the Price Tag? - This brief offers a framework for estimating the costs of doing Pre-K-3rd. It describes the core elements, and the steps to cost out each element based on district needs. (Rima Shore, Foundation for Child Development, April 2009)...

Partnering with the Private and Philanthropic Sectors: A Governorís Guide to Investing in Early Childhood - The report describes typical structures of early childhood public-private partnerships, common functions of these partnerships, and concrete steps that governors can take to create them. It also profiles eleven public-private partnerships around the country, examining their governance structures, funding, program activities, and evaluation efforts. (National Governors Association, 2008)...

The Cost of High-Quality Pre-School Education in New Jersey - This study estimates the cost of providing high-quality preschool in New Jersey. Researchers collected empirical cost and quality data from existing pre-k classrooms in New Jersey and determined the funding increase necessary to improve quality in two ways: hire/retain more experienced teachers and increase the quality of the classroom environment, as measured by the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale. (Education Law Center, December 2007) ...

Title I and Early Childhood Programs: A Look at Investments in the NCLB Era - This paper from examines how Title I funds can be used to provide early childhood services at the district or school level. The authors argue that NCLB's requirement that schools in need of improvement use research-based interventions may justify spending Title I funds on early childhood programs. The paper provides examples of how school districts across the country have used Title I funds on early childhood and offers recommendations for school districts who are considering the funding strategy. (Center for Law and Social Policy, October 2007)...

Costs Per Child for Early Childhood Education and Care Comparing Head Start, CCDF Child Care, and Prekindergarten/Preschool Programs (2003/2004) - This paper calculates the actual, per-child costs of Head Start (including Early Head Start), child care provided under the Child Care and Development Fund and pre-kindergarten/ preschool programs. The report finds that besides being substantially higher than often reported by government agencies, the resulting cost estimates show dramatic differences in costs per child among the three forms of education and care. (Douglas Besharov, Justus Myers and Jeffrey Morrow, The American Enterprise Institute, August 2007)...

What is the Cost of a Preschool Program? - This paper studies the root causes of differences in per-student costs of states' preschool programs. The authors suggest cost tradeoffs as different features such as smaller class size or longer school days are introduced or substituted for each other. These findings on preschool costs are contrasted with recent research on the effectiveness of different program provisions. The goal is to aid state or local governments in assessing the mix of characteristics that are most effective for the budget available. (Henry Levin and Heather Schwartz, The Center for Benefit-Cost Studies of Education, March 2007)...

A Guide to Calculating the Cost of Quality Early Care and Education - This brief serves as a guide to help state and community leaders develop effective financing strategies to support early care and education services. The Finance Project designed a process and model for estimating the current cost of early care and education, and the marginal cost of raising the quality of the system.(The Finance Project, May 2006)...

Spending Smarter: A Funding Guide for Policymakers and Advocates to Promote Social and Emotional Health and School Readiness - This brief discusses strategies that policymakers can implement to combine and maximize existing early childhood funding streams to school readiness and social-emotional health. (National Center for Children in Poverty, November 2005)...

Selected Research & Readings Current

Print Friendly and PDF


Thank you, Issue Site Sponsors

Home  |  About ECS  |  Education Issues A-Z  | Research Studies  |  Reports & Databases  |  State Legislation  |  State Profiles  |  Projects & Institutes  |  Newsroom  |  Website User's Guide

Information provided by ECS combines the best of the most recent and useful research available. Should you have questions, please contact our Information Clearinghouse at 303.299.3675.

700 Broadway, #810 Denver, CO 80203-3442
Phone: 303.299.3600 | Fax: 303.296.8332
©2015 Education Commission of the States |
Read our privacy policy