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High School--College Readiness
High School--Dual/Concurrent Enrollment


Developmental Strategies for College Readiness and Success: What State Policymakers and Education Leaders Need to Know - Efforts underway in at least 25 states to reduce the need for college remediation and improve college readiness and success are showcased in a resource guide for policymakers published by the Education Commission of the States and the Southern Regional Education Board, with assistance from Education First. The 50-page Developmental Strategies for College Readiness and Success is intended to provide an overview of the many initiatives underway in states to help students who enroll in college but are deemed not yet ready for college-level work. (Education Commission of the State, April 2014)...

NextDev Challenge: Assessment and Placement PDF - The online NextDev Challenge event, hosted by the Education Commission of the States’ Getting Past Go remedial education project, solicited program ideas that could improve outcomes in developmental education. This assessment and placement brief examines bridge programs, review and test preparation, and assessment reforms. (HCM Strategists and ECS, May 2013)...

NextDev Challenge: Instructional Delivery PDF - The online NextDev Challenge event, hosted by the Education Commission of the States’ Getting Past Go remedial education project, solicited program ideas that could improve outcomes in developmental education. This instructional delivery brief examines accelerated and modular approaches, course sequencing redesign, and co-enrollment models. (HCM Strategists and ECS, May 2013)...

NextDev Challenge: Student Supports PDF - The online NextDev Challenge event, hosted by the Education Commission of the States’ Getting Past Go remedial education project, solicited program ideas that could improve outcomes in developmental education. This student support brief examines tutoring and advising programs, and learning communities. (HCM Strategists and ECS, May 2013)...

12 for 2012 - 12 for 2012 is an ECS “read of the field,” built on our scrutiny of new reports and research, and our analysis of emerging drivers of change. The 12 policy areas do not represent an exhaustive list of the critical issues for the coming year, nor is this report intended to dictate your education policy priorities for 2012. Rather, 12 for 2012 is intended to stimulate thinking around how best to craft the “2.0” of powerful policy across the states. (ECS, 2012)...

Remedial and Developmental Education Policy at a Crossroads - The Education Commission of the States and the Center for Postsecondary Research on Preparation, Access and Remedial Education (PRePARE) at the University of Massachusetts Boston, have released a new paper that contends remedial education has and will continue to play a critical role in ensuring access to higher education and increasing college completion rates among the large population of Americans who now need a college credential to fully participate in a rapidly changing, knowledge-based, global economy. (Getting Past Go, August 2010)...

Rebuilding the Remedial Education Bridge to College Success PDF - In this paper, Getting Past Go describes the current policy landscape for remedial education, explores the critical policy levers that guide the delivery of remedial education on college campuses and studies how policy has either facilitated or impeded innovation in the delivery of remedial education. It outlines some initial findings from the work to date and offers a proposed framework for further study of state and system policy related to remedial education. (Bruce Vandal, ECS, May 2010)...

Developmental Studies/Remedial Education: What is the impact of policy and practice? - Access related research titles from the ECS Research Studies Database. Links embedded in titles will take you to each study's major findings and recommendations....

Developmental Studies/Remedial Education: What role does and can it play in college completion? - Access related research titles from the ECS Research Studies Database. Links embedded in titles will take you to each study's major findings and recommendations....

Remedial Replacement Testing in Community Colleges: What Resources Are Required, and What Does It Cost? - Using data from three community colleges, the authors estimate the costs of remedial placement systems to colleges and students. Colleges spend $30 to $44 per student per subject; students costs, counting their time, is $54-$71. These amounts appear low, compared to the cost of remediation itself, or misplacement of students into remediation. (Olga Rodriguez, et al., Community College Research Center, September 2014)...

A Common Framework for Remedial Reporting: Response to Remedial Reporting Task Force Recommendations - In December 2013, the Education Commission of the States (ECS) convened a steering committee of state education policy leaders from throughout the nation to discuss the implications of the inconsistent remedial education reporting practices in the states. After the conversation, the Remedial Reporting Steering Committee, which included elected officials, chief state school officers, state higher education executive officers and numerous education policy experts, advanced two recommendations. (Fulton, Gianneschi, ECS, July 2014)...

Addressing the Academic Barriers to Higher Education - Addressing the barrier to higher education that is remediation, this memo provides three recommendations. First, improve assessment systems that place students in remediation. Then, improve remediation itself by using technology, support services, and innovative pedagogies to do a better and quicker job of preparing students for college. Finally, adopt measures to prevent the need for remediation: offer college readiness tests in high school, align curricula and strengthen links between K-12 and higher ed. (Bridget Terry Long, The Hamilton Project at Brookings, June 2014)...

Redesigning the Student Intake and Information Provision Processes at a Large Comprehensive Community College - Faced with an overwhelming number of choices the first year of college, students often make the wrong choices, costing time and money. This study describes how a large community college planned and implemented a relatively inexpensive redesign of its student intake and information provision processes to reduce confusion and increase success. Since most community colleges have an advisor/student ration of 1 to 800-1200, this process had to depend mostly on online help for students, saving advisers for the most complicated cases. (Shanna Smith Jaggars and Jeffrey Fletcher, Community College Research Center, June 2014)...

Developmental Strategies For College Readiness And Success PDF - This 50-page resource guide is intended to provide an overview of the many initiatives underway in states to help students who enroll in college but are deemed not yet ready for college-level work. Efforts underway in at least 25 states to reduce the need for college remediation and improve college readiness and success are showcased. (Fulton, Gianneschi, Blanco, DeMaria; ECS, April 2014) ...

Why Students Do Not Prepare for Math Placement Exams: Student Perspectives - Though attention has been paid to reforming placement assessments, most students don't prepare for taking them because they don't realize the process could place them in semesters of not-for-credit courses, they don't know about preparation materials, they don't know how to prepare, and they lack math confidence. The authors recommend better informing students about the nature and consequences of the tests, telling them that preparation would be helpful, and then designing materials that tell how to prepare. (Maggie P. Fay, Susan Bickerstaff and Michelle Hodara, Community College Research Center, December 2013) ...

What We Know About Nonacademic Student Supports - Nonacademic student supports encourage academic success but do not deal directly with academic content. They deal with such barriers as financial struggles, transportation difficulties or insufficient childcare. Four mechanisms appear to promote appear to promote student success: creating social relationships, clarifying aspirations, developing college know-how, and making college feasible. (Melinda Mechur Karp and Georgia West Stacey, Community College Research Center, September 2013) ...

Fast Forward: A Case Study of Two Community College Programs Designed to Accelerate Students Through Developmental Math - So many community college students end their educations in the veil of tears that is remedial math that the Lumina Foundation launched a national initiative called Achieving the Dream, a network of some 200 colleges dedicated to remediation reform, among them Broward College in Fort Lauderdale, Fla., and Tarrant County College in Fort Worth, Tex. Broward compressed traditional 16-week courses into eight; Tarrant compressed a series of modules into courses that are largely self-paced. Both programs were scaled up and resulted in higher success rates and lower withdrawal rates. (MRDC, May 2013)...

Characteristics of Early Community College Dropouts - Characteristics are identified of students who drop out of community college after or during the first term, most of whom never attended any college again. Early dropouts tended to be older, were less likely to have financial aid or a Pell, were 5% more likely to be referred to developmental courses and did poorly in those and regular classes. Crosta suggests enhanced student support. (Peter Crosta, Community College Research Center, February 2013)...

Designing Meaningful Developmental Reform - When 60% of recent high school graduates entering community colleges are already behind, developmental education is a huge issue in the United States, not the least reason being its failure rate. To speed successful reform, the people at Community College Research Center figured out three sets of tensions in the reform movement and show how different community colleges reconciled that conflict. The tensions--system-wide consistency versus institutional autonomy, efficient versus effective assessment, and supporting student progression versus maintaining academic standards--often work at cross-purposes and stymie efforts to create a moe effective remedial system. (Community College Research Center, February 2013)...

Developmental Education: A Barrier to a Postsecondary Credential for Millions of Americans - Bottom line, community colleges are under the gun from two directions: too many students arrive unprepared, and expectations are higher than ever for the colleges to produce educated, career-ready workers. What do we know? Completion rates are low because students don't survive developmental ed. Short-term reforms have short-term results. Comprehensive reforms are hard to scale up. Showing promise: letting student enroll in regular classes with a companion developmental class. Next? Aligning common core high school standards with college standards so students come in better prepared. (MDRC, February 2013)...

First-Year Undergraduate Remedial Coursetaking: 1999-2000, 2003-04, 2007-08 - Rates of remedial course taking have dropped since 1999-2000, this report suggests. In 1999-2000, 26% of first-year undergraduates reported taking remedial courses, 19% in 2003-04 and 20% in 2007-08. While the authors say these numbers may indicate increased college readiness, they don't control for such policies and practices as an acceptance policy that requires developmental work to be done before admission, or changes in evaluation of student need.(NCES, January 2013)...

What Can a Multifaceted Program Do for Community College Students?: Early Results From an Evaluation of Accelerated Study in Associate Programs for Developmental Education Students - The City University of New York’s ASAP program requires full-time attendance and offers comprehensive supports to community college students for three full years. Early results from a random assignment study show that ASAP increases credits earned, full-time enrollment, and completion of developmental (or remedial) coursework. (MDRC, June 2012)...

Remediation: Higher Education's Bridge to Nowhere - This report finds that too many students entering college need remediation, and that most of these students don't make it through college level gateway courses or graduate. The report then identifies four steps states should take to address this problem, including: strengthen high school preparation; start students in college-level courses with built-in, co-requisite support; embed needed academic help in multiple gateway courses, and; encourage students to enter programs of study when they first enroll. (Complete College America, April 2012)...

The Opposing Forces That Shape Developmental Education: Assessment, Placement and Progression at CUNY Community Colleges - Based on a case study of the City University of New York's six community colleges, this report proposes a new opposing forces framework for understanding the dysfunction of the developmental system. The authors identified three sets of opposing forces that shape developmental policy and practice. Within each set, both goals are important and worthy, both are championed by key stakeholders in the system, and both have direct impacts on developmental policy. However the two goals tend to work in opposition to each other. (Community College Research Center, Teacher College-Columbia, November 2011)...

Unlocking the Gate: What We Know About Improving Developmental Education--Executive Summary - One of the greatest challenges that community colleges face in their efforts to increase graduation rates is improving the success of students in their developmental, or remedial, education programs. Emphasizing results from experimental and quasi-experimental studies, this literature review identifies the most promising approaches for revising the structure, curriculum, or delivery of developmental education and suggests areas for future innovations in developmental education practice and research. (MDRC, June 2011)...

Shining a Light on College Remediation in Colorado: The Predictive Utility of the ACT for Colorado and the Colorado Student Assessment Program - These findings suggest that a strategy of targeting efforts to improve all students' academic skills across all subgroups (ethnicity, socioeconomic status, students with disabilities) before they graduate from high school and enter postsecondary institutions, the workforce or the military could potentially reduce the amount of remediation required in postsecondary institutions. (Colorado Department of Education, March 2011)...

Effective Basic Skills Instruction: The Case for Contextualized Developmental Math - Recent research on students entering California community colleges found that less than 10% of students entering at the basic arithmetic or pre-algebra math level successfully complete college-level math. Overall, fewer than 20% complete a college-level math course, earn a certificate, degree or transfer to a four-year university within six years. In 2006 regulations were changed to strengthen the core curriculum for the California community colleges associate degree. Many occupationally-focused and "contextualized" math courses were eliminated. These integrated courses often focus on the mathematics required in specific occupations, starting with basic arithmetic or pre-algebra and progressing into intermediate algebra, and have significantly higher success rates than traditional math courses. Unfortunately, these contextualized courses were eliminated as they no longer meet the requirements for the associate degree. But the low success rates that are common in remedial math courses in the academic model mean that few students will be able to acquire the occupational skills necessary to complete an advanced occupational course, certificate or degree. (PACE, January 2011)...

Toward Information Assessment and a Culture of Evidence - This report discusses the myriad ways in which colleges have used both traditional measures of student performance as well as more innovative forms of assessment and data collection to improve pedagogical practice and to enhance student learning. (Lloyd Bond, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, May 2009)...

Remedial Education at Degree-Granting Postsecondary Institutions in Fall 2000 - This publication features nationwide data on the prevalence and the characteristics of remedial coursework, instruction and student participation at postsecondary institutions in fall 2000. It also explores changes in remedial education since 1995. Researchers found that 76% of all Title IV degree-granting two- and four-year institutions offered at least one remedial reading, writing or mathematics course for incoming freshman. They also found that 28% of entering freshman enrolled in at least one remedial course and completed remediation in one year or less. Distance education and the use of technology in the delivery of remedial education also is covered in this extensive report. (Basmat Parsad and Laurie Lewis, National Center for Education Statistics, 2003)...


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