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P-16 or P-20Selected Research & Readings (Additional Resources)
 
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State Education Leader (Winter 2002), “P-16”: The Next Great Education Reform MS Word PDF - What a P-16 system does is connect three largely disconnected levels of public education — preschool, K-12 and postsecondary. Students who have excelled in elementary or middle school sometimes face a shock when they find they lack the background knowledge or skills needed for high school work. The reason is that the American education system is, in fact, several different systems, all operating on their own. (State Education Leader, Education Commission of the States, vol. 20, no. 1, Winter 2002, 16 pages)...

A Noble Opportunity: Leading Education Change through a P-16 Accountability Model MS Word - This Briefing Paper from the National Forum on Accountability presents a new accountability model guided by the P-16 system of education -- preschool through college. The new model aims to ensure that all segments of a state's education system are serving students well and working together to meet student and educator needs. (Stephen Portch, Education Commission of the States, May 2002)...

A Student-Centered P-16 Accountability Model MS Word - This Briefing Paper from the National Forum on Accountability outlines a "next generation" accountability model that spans states' education systems from pre-kindergarten through the end of undergraduate education (P-16). The author argues that new accountability systems should provide opportunities for all students to prepare well for, and succeed, in college. (Andrea Venezia, Stanford Institute for Higher Education Research, May 2002)...

What Is P-16 Education? A Primer for Legislators MS Word PDF - This primer is designed to serve as a practical guide to an integrated public education system. It offers a basic orientation to P-16 education, beginning with an overview of the varying definitions of P-16 and concluding with specific questions for legislators to consider. (Gordon (Spud) Van de Water and Terese Rainwater, Education Commission of the States, April 2001)...

P-16 Collaboration Paves the Way for Achievement MS Word - Communities and states across the country are looking for ways to improve student achievement, access to and success in higher education. (Todd Ziebarth and Terese Rainwater, State Education Leader, Fall 2000)...

ECS P-16 Publications - P-16 issues have arisen as part of several ECS initiatives, including Governor Paul E. Patton’s 1999 initiative on transforming postsecondary education and the ECS service-learning project. Here are some highlights of several publications. (Education Commission of the States, 2000) ...

The School-College Connection PDF - The school-college connection becomes a national preoccupation roughly every 30 years. The underlying concerns are unchanging – low student achievement, poor teaching, lax discipline, weak standards and overlaps, gaps and inadequacies in curricula. The simple fact is that there is a yawning gap between grade 12 and grade 13. (Arthur Levine, from Briefing Papers: Transforming Postsecondary Education for the 21st Century, Education Commission of the States, June 1999)...

States, Schools and Colleges: Policies to Improve Student Readiness for College and Strengthen Coordination Between Schools and Colleges - One key component of any strategy to improve college completion and attainment must be to increase the numbers of young Americans who graduate from high school and enroll in higher eudcation prepared to undertake college-level coursework. Included in this report are a three-part national perspective of the the history, efforts in the states for alignment, and case studies of P-16 and P-20 councils. (National Center for Public Policy in Higher Education, November 2009)...

Aligning Secondary and Postsecondary Education: Lessons from the Past - Educators have long expressed the need to align all levels of education and build a seamless, coordinated P-16 system. They argue that failing to do so has kept too many students from pursuing an advanced education and the nation from benefiting from a more educated populace. Such was the case in the late-19th and early-20th centuries, when educators first began to struggle with the proper alignment of the American educational structure. The argument continues and the need to align standards and missions between secondary and higher education. This brief considers this history and the lessons it offers for today. (Marc VanOverbeke, University of Wisconsin, November 2009)...

America’s Perfect Storm - The authors of this report document and describe the confluence of three powerful forces that are having a considerable impact on America: (1) divergent skill distributions among U.S. population groups, (2) a changing economy and (3) demographic trends of a growing and more diverse population. The report also projects the impact of these interactions on the nation 25 years into the future. The authors warn that the U.S. must change course and take effective action or “gradually lose ground in relation to other countries, becoming more divided both socially and economically in the process." Consequently, America must equip its citizens with the ability to perform highly-valued work and with opportunities to renew their skills as the nature of that work evolves. (Irwin Kirsch, Henry Braun and Kentaro Yamamoto of ETS, and Andrew Sum of Northeastern University. Educational Testing Service, 2007) Executive Summary ...

More Student Success: A Systemic Solution - This book tells how to build a system leading to more student success beginning in elementary school and continuing through high school and postsecondary education. It identifies the key elements, describes effective practices, and shows how they come together to help students and educators succeed. (State Higher Education Executive Officers, 2007) ...

The College Ladder: Linking Secondary and Postsecondary Education for Success for All Students - This report reviews 22 programs that provide opportunities for high school students to earn college-level credit or take college-level courses to determine their impact on a range of student outcomes, including credits earned during high school, performance on high school tests, high school graduation rates, college-going rates, college remediation, college grades, retention in college and degree and job market attainment. An emphasis is placed on programs that traditionally serve high-achieving students, as well as those that serve first generation, low-income and low-performing students and underrepresented minorities. Although the research is limited, outcomes generally are positive, indicating that students who participate in these programs receive some benefit and may find a Secondary-Postsecondary Learning Option a good alternative to their regular high school experience. The College Ladder also describes various characteristics of effective programs, and analyzes issues of credit transferability, funding for these school-college partnerships and equitable access to programs. (Jennifer Brown Lerner and Betsy Brand, American Youth Policy Forum, September 2006)...

P–16 Data Systems: An Alignment Status Report - This issue brief explores the past, present and future of aligning the at times disparate P-12 and postsecondary data systems. The brief highlights promising state actions and provides recommendations for creating an effective P-16 data system. (Hans P. L'Orange and Peter Ewell, Data Quality Campaign, January 2007) ...

Instructional Focus in First Grade - First grade is generally the first year of mandatory full-day schooling in the United States and is thus, for many students, the first time that they will be attending school in a full-day setting. This Issue Brief details how often per week and how much time per day 1st-graders were instructed in subjects such as reading, mathematics, science and the arts during the 1999-2000 academic year. (National Center for Education Statistics, March 2006)...

Improving the High School-to-College Transition Through Leadership and Governance - This issue brief suggests that the fragmented education system in states is a result of several factors: high school curricula and assessments not aligned with post-high school work and college expectations; state data systems that do not measure the effectiveness of high school improvement efforts; and separate K-12 and higher education accountability systems. The author proposes three strategies to join the K-12 and postsecondary systems – creating a single P-16 governance structure, creating a permanent statewide education commission and strengthening statewide governance of higher education – and highlights state policies applying these solutions. (Kristin D. Conklin, National Governors Association, April 2005)...

College Readiness Begins in Middle School - This study – reporting findings from a survey and focus group discussion with middle and high school students from 15 schools in six districts – examines the extent of early exploration and planning in certain college readiness areas and explores how parents, school staff and school experiences help students with their early educational planning. The authors recommend that college readiness begin in middle school and that schools should (1) explain to students and their parents the effects of taking a challenging curriculum on their future educational, career and income options; (2) use multiple sources of information, including standardized assessments, to help inform students and their parents of the student's progress toward college readiness; and (3) work with families to calculate college costs and develop a plan to meet those costs. (George L. Wimberly and Richard J. Noeth, ACT, Inc., 2005)...

Leaks in the Postsecondary Pipeline: A Survey of Americans - How well do Americans feel the nation’s education system is moving young people through the system—to high school graduation and postsecondary enrollment and completion? Among the findings in this survey of over 1,000 American adults: a vast majority of Americans believe some or major changes are needed in the nation’s high schools and postsecondary institutions. Nearly six in 10 feel better coordination is needed to help students move from high school to college and succeed once they are there. Respondents also weigh in on the importance of a college degree, the biggest problems facing the secondary and postsecondary education systems, and who should play the largest role in helping young people through the pipeline. (Jobs for the Future, fall 2003)...

On Course for Success: A Close Look at Selected High School Courses That Prepare All Students for College - The authors examined the college-track courses in 10 high-achieving high schools nationwide – some of which serve high-minority, high-poverty student populations – to identify common components of these successful programs. Students in the college-oriented trajectory were found to have: (1) college-oriented course content; (2) qualified and experienced teachers; (3) teaching that is flexible and responsive to students; and (4) extra student support when needed. The report also presents model course syllabi for grades 10 and 11 English, geometry, Algebra II, precalculus, and the college-preparatory counterparts in these subjects as well as biology, chemistry and physics. Numerous recommendations are provided, including that all students be taught a rigorous, college-oriented curriculum.Check out the summary in our Research Studies Database.(ACT and The Education Trust, 2005)...

The Governance Divide: A Report on a Four-State Study on Improving College Readiness and Success - In the 21st century, when more students must complete some postsecondary education to have an economically secure life, the need for improved transitions from high school to college is urgent. This report proposes a set of state policy levers that can be used to create meaningful changes for students, identifies other factors states face as they seek to improve transitions between high school and college, provides state leaders with real-world policy choices, and offers recommendations to help states transform ad hoc approaches into sustained action and institutionalized, long-term K-16 reforms. (Andrea Venezia, Patrick M. Callan, Joni E. Finney, Michael W. Kirst and Michael D. Usdan, The National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, September 2005)...

Crisis at the Core: Preparing All Students for College and Work - According to this report, American high school students are no better prepared for college than they were 10 years ago. Of the 1.2 million students throughout the country who took the ACT tests this year, only 22% were ready for college-level work in English, mathematics and science. An additional 19% were prepared in two of the three areas and could succeed in the third area "by doing just a little bit more," the study found. In addition to the full report, an executive summary and action plans for policymakers and educators, and business and community leaders also are available. (ACT, Inc., 2004)...

Transforming the American High School: New Directions for State and Local Policy - High schools are providing pathways to nowhere for many students instead of pathways to college for all students, according to the author. He suggests accelerating current reform efforts by: (1) providing immediate, intensive help to the lowest-performing high schools; (2) providing incentives for creating small high schools and small learning environments; and (3) creating new models of schools and youth pathways. (Michael Cohen, Jobs For the Future and The Aspen Institute, 2001)...

Student Success: Statewide P-16 Systems - This publication draws on examinations of P-16 systems in California, Louisiana, Maryland, North Carolina and Rhode Island. It includes essays focusing on the following components of an integrated education system: early outreach, curriculum and assessment systems, high quality teaching, student financial assistance and data and accountability systems. (State Higher Education Executive Officers, 2003)...

Understanding University Success - The purpose of this report is to answer the question, “What must students know and be able to do in order to succeed in entry-level university courses?” This booklet describes foundational skills and content standards in English, mathematics, natural sciences, social sciences, second languages and the arts. (Standards for Success, 2003)...

Betraying the College Dream: How Disconnected K-12 and Postsecondary Education Systems Undermine Student Aspirations - Within the six states studied (California, Georgia, Illinois, Maryland, Oregon and Texas), the authors found that over 80% of African-American and Latino students surveyed plan to attend some form of postsecondary education. However, this study also found that the states have created multiple barriers between high school and college. Other findings highlighted issues such as inequalities in college counseling, college preparation course offerings and connections with local postsecondary institutions. In addition to the full report, there is a policy brief and executive summary available. (Michael Kirst, Andrea Venezia and Anthony L. Antonio, Stanford University, March 2003)...

Standards for What? The Economic Roots of K-16 Reform - Baby-boom retirements and flat educational attainment rates mean the United States could face a substantial shortage in skilled workers that have at least some postsecondary education, according to this report. Greater alignment throughout the K-16 education system will be needed to prepare the next generation of workers, the report finds. (Anthony P. Carnevale and Donna Desrochers, Educational Testing Service, 2003)...

Creating Seamless Educational Transitions for Urban African American and Hispanic Students - Urban college-bound minority high school students have high educational ambitions, but many lack the college-planning information they need to make informed choices on how to realize these ambitions, according to a new study conducted by ACT, Inc. The study suggests these students need consistent, structured help in planning for their futures – how to prepare for college, what college to select, and how and where to apply for financial aid – pointing to a need for school districts to set up proactive plans as early as middle school to accomplish these goals. The authors recommend that school districts implement an Educational Transitions Strategic Plan, a strategic plan that focuses on college exploration and postsecondary planning, beginning in middle school and continuing on through high school. (Richard J. Noeth and George L. Wimberly, ACT, Inc., June 2002)...

P-16 Education - This ERIC Digest article - by ECS policy analysts - provides a concise overview on the issue of P-16 education, outlining the goals, strengths and challenges of this integrated system of education. The article briefly highlights state efforts to implement P-16 reforms. (Gordon Van de Water and Carl Krueger, ERIC Digest, Number 159, June 2002)...

Building a Highway to Higher Ed: How Collaborative Efforts are Changing Education in America - This report documents how the nation's largest city has built better pathways between secondary and postsecondary schools in just a short period of time. Key findings show that nationally nearly one-third of students arrive unprepared for college, and over 50% of those who enter college never earn a degree. The good news is that collaboration is sweeping the nation – communication and collaboration among all levels of education has become a national reform movement. (Neil Scott Kleiman, Center for an Urban Future, June 2001)...

All One System: A Second Look MS Word - Like Harold Hodgkinson’s 1985 seminal work, All One System, this update argues that there is a single system of education underlying all the segments, yet the lack of effective links – from preK to the university – threatens to undermine educational success at every level. This report clarifies recent trends, current impasses and areas of immediate priority regarding the long-neglected relationships among preschool, public schools and higher education. Available from iel.org. (Part of the Perspectives in Public Policy series, Institute for Educational Leadership and National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 1999)...

Bridging the K-12/Postsecondary Divide with a Coherent K-16 System - This brief looks at some of the primary causes of the disjuncture between the K-12 and postsecondary systems and the problems that have resulted for teachers, students, administrators and faculty. It also looks at some ways this gap can be addressed by adopting a K-16 perspective and improving teaching to meet more demanding K-16 standards. (Consortium for Policy Research in Education Policy Brief, Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania, June 2000). ...

K-16 Alignment as a Strategy To Improve the Connection Between High School and Postsecondary Education PDF - This paper presents a hypothetical model for policymakers designed to depict the K-16 perspective on education reform with a focus on alignment between high school and college. The model assumes that much of the leadership and direction for K-16 reforms will come from the state level, although there is a considerable amount of activity at the local level. The K-16 reforms suggested by the model are just beginning and the model is a long way from being proven, however. (M. Bruce Haslam and Michael C. Rubenstein, Policy Studies Associates, 2000; to order, call 202-939-9780)...


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