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Minority/Diversity IssuesAfrican AmericanSelected Research & Readings (Additional Resources)
 
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At-Risk (incl. Dropout Prevention)
High School--Dropout Rates/Graduation Rates
Minority/Diversity Issues
Postsecondary Students--Minority
Student Achievement
Student Achievement--Closing the Achievement Gap


The Progress of Education Reform: Closing the Achievement Gap PDF - This issue of The Progress of Education Reform provides summaries of the latest research on the causes, dimensions and effects of the achievement gap, along with links to other sources of information. (Suzanne Weiss, The Progress of Education Reform, vol. 4, no. 1, Education Commission of the States, March 2003)...

The Public Returns to Public Educational Investments in African American Males - This paper calculates the public savings from greater public investments in the education of African American males. The report: (1) identifies five interventions that would increase the graduation rate; (2) reports the public cost of each intervention; and (3) calculates the lifetime public benefits in terms of increased tax revenues and lower spending on health and crime. These public benefits amount to $256,700 per new graduate and the median intervention would cost only $90,700. The benefit/cost ratio is 2.83. (Henry Levin, Clive Belfield, Peter Muennig and Cecilia Rouse, The Center for Benefit-Cost Studies of Education, 2007)...

Economic Impact of the Nation's Historically Black Colleges and Universities - This study documents the economic role of the nation’s historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) by estimating the short-term economic impact that each of these institutions has on their local communities. In 2001, the combined initial spending associated with the nation’s 101 HBCUs totaled $6.6 billion. Public HBCUs accounted for 62% of the total amount. The total economic impact of the nation’s HBCUs was $10.2 billion. This amount would rank the collective economic impact of the nation’s HBCUs 232nd on the Forbes Fortune 500 list of the United States’ largest companies. Additionally, the total employment impact of the 101 HBCUs included 180,142 total full- and part-time jobs in 2001. The report includes templates that can easily be used to update impact estimates for subsequent years as new Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System data become available. (Jeffrey Humphreys, National Center for Education Statistics, October 2006) ...

Public Education and Black Male Students: A State Report Card - The graduation rate for African American males in the United States was 41% in 2001-2002, compared with 70% for white students. This high rate of failure in educating African American males has many negative consequences at the individual and societal levels. The report compares graduation rates between white and black males by state, and by district for those districts with enrollments of at least 10,000 African American males. Detailed reports for 21 states can be found starting on page 17, comparing information such as 8th and 4th grade NAEP scores and inequities in discipline and special education. (The Schott Foundation for Public Education, 2004)...

Are the NCTM Standards Reaching All Students? - This paper examines mathematics achievement among 4th, 8th and 12th graders, comparing African American and white students from high and low socioeconomic status (SES). Despite recent mathematics achievement increases, race- and SES-related gaps persist. While some classroom experiences were consistent with the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Standards – group work and manipulative use – other aspects of mathematics instruction – the role of calculators, type of assessment used and teacher emphasis on reasoning – were found to correlate with both SES and race. NCTM Standards are being implemented more frequently for white, middle-class students. More effort is needed to enhance the mathematical problem-solving skills of lower-SES and African American students. (Sarah Theule Lubienski, Iowa State University, April 2001)...

Brown At 50: King’s Dream or Plessy’s Nightmare - Brown v. Board of Education led to widespread desegregation programs, but the 1991 Dowell decision allowed for the return to neighborhood schools, even if it resulted in resegregation. In many districts where court-ordered desegregation was ended in the past decade, there has been a major increase in segregation. After making the most progress in integration, the south is now experiencing the largest move to resegregation. Other findings include, central cities of large metropolitan areas are heavily segregated, and the vast majority of intensely segregated schools face conditions of concentrated poverty. (Gary Orfield and Chungmei Lee, The Civil Rights Project at Harvard University, January 2004)...

Charter Schools and Race: A Lost Opportunity for Integrated Education - This report examines charter schools’ impact on desegregation, finding that African American students enroll in disproportionately high numbers and attend minority-dominated schools at much higher rates than in noncharter public schools. The authors argue charter schools have the potential to create integrated schools, and efforts should be made to improve the racial balance. Recommendations include supplying full information to all families, providing free transportation for students and eliminating admissions screening. The authors list charter school desegregation legislation for a number of states, along with charter school enrollment figures starting on page 22. Page 33 contains a chart illustrating white isolation and exposure to African American students in select states. (Erica Frankenberg and Chungmei Lee, The Civil Rights Project at Harvard University, July 2003)...

Highlights from the ETS African American Education Seminar - The seminar notes include several papers. The first proposes affirmative student development be aimed at all economically disadvantaged and undereducated students, regardless of race. The paper by Ellen Frede analyzes preschool programs for low-income children. It finds that in three such programs the initial costs were far less than the overall societal savings, due to decreased reliance on welfare and special education programs, lower rates of arrest and higher levels of high school graduation, college participation, income and home ownership. The paper by Jacqueline Jordan Irvine discusses African American teachers’ perceptions of their role as teachers of African American students. The final section announces the creation of the Edmund W. Gordon Chair for Policy Evaluation & Research at ETS. (Educational Testing Service, Spring 2004)...

Kids Count Pocket Guide: African American Children - This report uses U.S. Census Bureau data to provide a state-by-state measure of well-being for African American children. A number of factors are examined, including demographics, household makeup, income and poverty, employment, education and neighborhood characteristics. (The Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2003)...

Status and Trends in the Education of Blacks - This report provides statistics on numerous indicators on the experience of blacks in American education, including demographic characteristics; pre-K-12 participation, persistence, academics, family involvement and student behaviors; postsecondary participation and completion; and outcomes of education. (Kathryn Hoffman, Charmaine Llagas and Thomas D. Snyder, National Center for Education Statistics, September 2003)...

School Relationships Foster Success for African-American Students - According to this report from ACT, a strong relationship with a teacher, counselor or administrator in high school can help propel students to college or other postsecondary education. However, research shows that African-American students are less likely than their white peers to develop the type of bond with an adult at school that facilitates college-going and the report suggests this gap in forming relationships may be one reason why African-American students are not attending college at the same rate as their white peers.(George L. Wimberly, ACT, 2002) ...

Time To Move On: African American and White Parents Set an Agenda for Public Schools - This study examines the opinions of African American and white parents regarding education. Although the study finds many areas of agreement between both groups, there were disagreements. African American parents were more likely to believe schools should expect all kids to go to college and that having a diverse student body and teaching about the contributions of African Americans and other minorities is essential. Although they consider integration desirable, African American parents put more emphasis on improving academic achievement for their children. The authors list an agenda for improving public schools beginning on page 30, and supporting tables containing survey questions and responses on page 38. (Steve Farkas and Jean Johnson, Public Agenda, 1998)...


Selected Research & Readings Current

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