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Highlights -- Reading Next: A Vision for Action and Research in Middle and High School Literacy MS Word - This excerpt of a report by the Alliance for Excellent Education offers a great summary of the current literature on middle and high school literacy, and contains concrete recommendations for state and district action. Also included at the bottom of this document is a list of other useful resources on adolescent literacy. (Katy Anthes, Education Commission of the States, November 2004)...

Comprehensive State Literacy Policy: A Guide for Policymakers MS Word PDF - This guide contains principles that can serve as tools for policymakers in their efforts to implement literacy initiatives and meet the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. (Education Commission of the States, November 2002)...

State Education Leader (Spring-Summer 2002), “Leading for Literacy”: From Research to Policy MS Word - While our society now devotes substantial resources to provide an education for all children, the most recent national student assessment found that only 8% of 4th-grade students are reading at the highest level of performance, and only 32% are at or above the "proficient" level in reading. Since research now provides answers to the crucial questions surrounding reading instruction, what states need now, more than ever, is to develop the capacity to translate this research into sound public policy. Policymakers will need three main tools: (1) access to information and data on literacy programs from across the country; (2) a model policy framework to help policymakers select the best policy options possible for their particular state environment; and (3) a means of mobilizing key education leaders and policymakers to develop the most workable and realistic policies for each state. (State Education Leader, vol. 20, no. 2, Spring-Summer 2002, 16 pages) ...

The Progress of Education Reform 1999-2001: Reading MS Word PDF - Provides state policymakers with a concise overview of crucial questions on improving student reading skills. (Suzanne Weiss, The Progress of Education Reform, Education Commission of the States, vol. 1, no. 4, November-December 1999)...

Reading: What Policymakers Need To Know MS Word - This ECS policy brief provides background information to state leaders on the following issues as they play an increasingly visible role in reading programs: (a) understanding how children learn to read, (b) clarifying what research says about effective reading approaches, (c) understanding why so many students aren't reading successfully and (d) identifying what policymakers can do to help increase student reading performance. (Education Commission of the States, June 1998)...

Intervention: Reading Apprenticeship - Reading Apprenticeship is an instructional approach that intends to help middle school, high school, and community college students develop skills and knowledge to improve their engagement, fluency and comprehension of content-area materials and texts. The program provides a range of professional development activities for teachers as well as an academic literacy curricula for students. The approach was found to have potentially positive effects on comprehension for adolescent learners. (What Works Clearinghouse, Institute of Education Sciences, July 2010)...

The Nation's Report Card: Trial Urban District Assessment Reading 2009 - Results from the 2009 NAEP Trial Urban District Assessment (TUDA) make it possible to compare the performance of students in urban districts to public school students in the nation and large cities with populations of 250,000 or more. Changes in students' performance over time can also be seen for those districts that participated in earlier assessments. (National Center for Education Statistics, May 2010)...

The Nation's Report Card: Reading 2009--National Assessment of Education Progress at Grades 4 and 8 - Since 2007, the nation's 8th-graders have made some improvements in reading comprehension while the overall results for 4th-graders were unchanged, according to results from the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), also known as The Nation's Report Card. (National Center for Education Statistics, March 2010)...

Literacy: State of the Nation--A Picture of Literacy in the UK Today - The National Literacy Trust defines literacy as the combination of reading, writing, speaking and listening skills; essentially those skills which are critical to the happiness, health and wealth of individuals and society. This report provides a coherent picture of literacy in the United Kingdom today. (Deeqa Jama and George Dugdale, National Literacy Trust, March 2010)...

Effective Reading Programs for the Elementary Grades: A Best-Evidence Synthesis - This article systematically reviews research on the achievement outcomes of four types of approaches to improving the reading success of children in the elementary grades: (1) reading curricula; (2) instructional technology; (3) instructional process programs; and (4) combinations of curricula and instructional process. (Robert Slavin, Cynthia Lake, Bette Chambers, Alan Cheung and Susan Davis, Best Evidence Encyclopedia, January 2010)...

What Works: An Introductory Teacher Guide for Early Language and Emergent Literacy Instruction - This guide was designed to help pre-k teachers inform their classroom practice with findings from the National Early Literacy Panel. It is organized by three kinds of strategies critical for early literacy development: code-focused instruction, oral language and shared reading. For each area, the guide includes report findings, instruction strategies (with examples), assessment strategies, and additional resources. (National Center for Family Literacy, 2009)...

Teacher Strategies to Help Fourth-Graders Having Difficulty in Reading: An International Perspective - This brief examines one particular aspect of reading instruction within the participating PIRLS 2006 jurisdictions: It attempts to describe international patterns and variation in the strategies reported by teachers to help 4th-grade students having difficulty in reading. This report uses data collected from the PIRLS 2006 teacher background questionnaire. (National Center for Education Statistics, September 2009)...

Time to Act: An Agenda for Advancing Adolescent Literacy for College and Career Success - According to the report, states that have invested in adolescent literacy initiatives are already seeing positive benefits for their efforts. The authors outline specific action steps for school leaders, district leaders, state leaders and federal policymakers. The recommendations emphasize standards and assessments, data systems, great teachers and leaders and re-engineering struggling schools. (Carnegie Corporation of New York, September 2009) ...

What Works for Struggling Readers? - This review summarizes a report evaluating research on the achievement outcomes of alternative approaches for struggling readers in primary school: One-to-one-tutoring, small group tutorials, classroom teaching process approaches and IT. (Institute for Effective Education, July 2009)...

Effective Beginning Reading Programs - What beginning reading programs have been proven effective in helping students in K-1 learn to read? This review summarizes evidence on four types of programs designed to improve beginning reading achievement: Reading Curriculum, Instructional Technology, Instructional Process Programs, and Combined Curriculum and Instructional Process Programs. You can drill into specific programs or view the educator’s summary. (Best Evidence Encyclopedia, June 2009)...

A Critical Mission: Making Adolescent Reading an Immediate Priority in SREB States - SREB sought advice of national literacy experts, surveyed its member states, and formed a committee of state leaders to study this issue and identify solutions. Among their interesting findings: many states lack the specific policies they need; none of the SREB states have tied specific reading skills to academic standards for each subject in high school. Recommendations are included in the report. (Southern Regional Education Board, 2009)...

Literacy for Learning - Raising literacy to levels that encourage learning requires moving beyond phonics and word recognition. The National Academy of Education recommends two initiatives that should be part of a national effort: (1) State and federal governments should increase investment in early education programs and make oral language development a primary focus of preschool and (2) English language learners should get targeted, conceptually rich language instruction starting in preschool and continuing until students are fully proficient in English. If possible, bilingual or dual language techniques should be used. (National Academy of Education, November 2008)...

Developing Early Literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel - This report identifies critical early literacy skills that predict later literacy outcomes and the programs or interventions that are most effective at helping children developing them. The authors reviewed research and identified 6 early literacy skills (as well as a second tier of skills) critical during early development and also include a guide for practitioners to translate the research into action. The National Institute for Early Education Research and other early literacy experts provided additional commentary on this report. (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2008)...

Improving Adolescent Literacy: Effective Classroom and Intervention Practices - Reports from the 2007 NAEP 8th grade reading tests reveal that 69% of 8th grade students fall below the proficient level in reading comprehension and 26% of students read below the basic level. The time has come to consider seriously the support that needs to be given to struggling readers and the role that every teacher needs to play in working toward higher levels of literacy among all adolescents, regardless of their reading abilities. (M.L. Kamil, G.D. Borman, J. Dole, C.C. Kral and T. Salinger, and J. Torgesen, U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, August 2008)...

The Enhanced Reading Opportunities Study: Early Impact and Implementation Findings - A majority of ninth graders in low-performing high schools begin freshman year with significant reading difficulties. This report presents early findings from the Enhanced Reading Opportunities (ERO) study, which is an evaluation of two supplemental literacy programs. The research results suggest that the programs had a statistically significant impact on improving student reading comprehension scores. (Prepared for the National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, January 2008) ...

Reading First: Locally Appreciated, Nationally Troubled - The federal Reading First program is widely credited by state and local officials for lifting student achievement, according to this report. Further, the program’s impact is felt far beyond the participating schools. Similarly, states reported that more than 3,000 non-Reading-First districts participated in state-led Reading First professional development. (Caitlin Scott, Center on Education Policy, October 31, 2007)...

The Proficiency Illusion - No Child Left Behind (NCLB) allows each state to define proficiency as it sees fit and design its own tests. This study compares state tests to benchmarks laid out by the Northwest Evaluation Association to evaluate proficiency cut scores for assessments in 26 states. The findings suggest that the tests states use to measure academic program and student proficiency under NCLB are creating a false impression of success, especially in reading and especially in the early grades. (John Cronin, Michael Dahlin, Deborah Adkins and Gage Kingsbury, Thomas B. Fordham Institute, October 2007)...

Effective Reading Programs for Middle and High Schools: A Best Evidence Synthesis - What reading programs have been proven to help middle and high school students to succeed? To find out, this review summarizes evidence on three types of programs designed to improve the mathematics achievement of students in grades 6-12: Reading curricula, Computer assisted instruction and Instructional process programs. (Robert Slavin, Alan Cheung, Cynthia Groff and Cynthia Lake, Johns Hopkins University, August 2007)...

Improving Early Reading Skills for Children in Poverty - Almost 70% of low-income 4th grade students cannot read at a basic level, according to the U.S. Department of Education. The authors of this report find that classroom and school characteristics had a larger effect on student’s long-term reading abilities than the method of instruction or the child’s background. (FPG Child Development Institute, June 2007)...

The What Works Clearinghouse: Beginning Reading - This review focuses on reading interventions for students in grades K-3 (or ages 5-8) that are intended to increase skills in alphabetics (phonemic awareness, phonological awareness, letter recognition, print awareness and phonics), reading fluency, comprehension (vocabulary and reading comprehension) or general reading achievement. Interventions for this review are defined as programs, products, practices or policies that are intended to increase skills in the areas named above. (U.S. Department of Education, August 2007) ...

Double the Work: Challenges and Solutions To Acquiring Language and Academic Literacy for Adolescent English Language Learners - This report argues that English language learners must work twice as hard in order to meet the same accountability standards as their native English-speaking peers. The report recommends several techniques and strategies for overcoming the challenges to improving the literacy of English language learners. (Deborah J. Short and Shannon Fitzsimmons, Alliance for Excellent Education, 2007) ...

Teaching All Students to Read in Elementary Schools: A Guide for Principals - This guide can help school-level instructional leaders improve the overall quality of reading instruction in their by helping to identify the most critical changes that must be made. It describes the types of instruction and leadership activities necessary to help all children become proficient readers in elementary school. (Center on Instruction, 2007)...

Trial Urban District Assessment (TUDA) Results in Mathematics and Reading - The results from the National Assessment of Educational Progress TUDA makes it possible to compare the performance of students in participating urban school districts to that of public school students in the nation, in large central cities and to each other. Reports are available in mathematics and reading. Depending on when each district began participating in TUDA, results are available for comparison to 2002, 2003 and 2005. (National Center for Education Statistics, 2007)...

Whole-Language High Jinks: How to Tell When “Scientifically-Based Reading Instruction” Isn’t - This Fordham Institute report indicates that the reading wars are not over. Reading expert Louisa Moats explains how educators, parents and concerned citizens can spot ineffective reading programs that hide under the “scientifically-based” banner. She provides questions to ask to ensure that a reading program is based on scientific evidence of effectiveness. Although many readers might disagree with the premises presented here, at the end of the report are some excellent suggestions regarding reading instruction for policymakers to consider. (Louisa Moats, Thomas B. Fordham Institute, January 2007) ...

Reading First Implementation Evaluation: Interim Report - NCLB established the Reading First (RF) program, an initiative designed to help ensure that all children can read at or above grade level by the end of 3rd grade. RF is predicated on scientifically researched findings that high-quality reading instruction in the primary grades significantly reduces the number of students who experience reading difficulties in later years. This report – the first in a series of planned reports on an evaluation of the program – examines: (1) how the RF program is implemented in districts and schools and (2) how reading instruction differs between RF schools and non-RF Title I schools? (U.S. Department of Education, 2006) ...

What Education Schools Aren’t Teaching about Reading and What Elementary Teachers Aren’t Learning - This study attempts to learn what aspiring teachers are taught about reading instruction. From a randomly selected, representative sample of 72 education schools, 223 required reading courses are reviewed, including evaluations of syllabi as well as 227 required reading texts. Schools were scored on how well their courses presented the core components of the science of reading. Findings include: (1) only 15% of the education schools provide future teachers with minimal exposure to the science; (2) course syllabi reveal a tendency to dismiss the scientific research in reading, continuing to espouse approaches to reading that will not serve up to 40% of all children; and (3) course texts were equally disappointing. Only four of the 227 texts were rated as “acceptable” for use as a general, comprehensive textbook. The report closes with recommendations to ameliorate this serious failure in adequately preparing teachers in the best practices of reading instruction. (Kate Walsh, Deborah Glaser and Danielle Dunne Wilcox, National Council on Teacher Quality, May 2006) ...

Volume II: Closing the Reading Gap: First Year Findings from a Randomized Trial of Four Reading Interventions for Striving Readers - The nation’s 16,000 school districts spend hundreds of millions of dollars on reading intervention services about which little is known regarding effectiveness. Which ones work best, and for whom? Under what conditions are they most effective? Do these programs have the potential to close the reading gap? To help answer these questions, the authors initiated an evaluation of either parts or all of four widely used programs for elementary school students with reading problems: Corrective Reading, Failure Free Reading, Spell Read P.A.T. and Wilson Reading. (Joseph Torgesen, David Myers, Allen Schirm, Elizabeth Stuart, Sonya Vartivarian, Wendy Mansfield, Fran Strancavage, Donna Durno, Rosanne Javorsky and Cinthia Haan, U.S. Department of Education, February 2006)...

A Consumer's Guide to Evaluating a Core Reading Program Grades K-3: A Critical Elements Analysis - This guide is designed to help states, districts and schools evaluate kindergarten through grade 3 reading programs for their alignment with research and with students' learning needs. The guide aligns with the findings of the 2000 National Reading Panel and includes the five critical components of reading – phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and reading comprehension. This site includes additional resources such as a planning and evaluation tool for effective schoolwide reading programs K-grade 3 and video clips of effective reading instruction and assessment. (Deborah C. Simmons, Edward J. Kame’enui, College of Education, University of Oregon, 2006)...

The Literacy of America's College Students - This report finds that 20% of graduates of four-year programs and 30% of those earning two-year degrees lack the quantitative skills to do basic calculations. The report found that the mathematical skills of today's graduates are not any worse than those of previous generations, and that in other forms of literacy, today's graduates are doing better. (Justin D. Baer, Andrea L. Cook and Stephane Baldi, American Institutes for Research, January 2006)...

A First Look at the Literacy of America’s Adults in the 21st Century - This report examines results of the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy, which measured the English literacy of America's adults, those 16 and older living in households or prisons. Results for adults' literacy in three areas – prose literacy, document literacy and quantitative literacy – are examined by race/ethnicity, gender, age, language spoken before starting school, educational attainment and disability status. (Mark Kutner, Elizabeth Greenberg and Justin Baer, National Center for Education Statistics, December 2005)...

NAEP 2005 Mathematics and Reading Trial Urban District (TUDA) Results - The TUDA is a special project in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) assessing academic performance in selected large urban districts. Eleven districts participated in the 2005 NAEP reading and mathematics assessments, and in December 2005, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) released reports containing results of the reading and mathematics assessments. Also available online are snapshots of participating districts for reading and mathematics. (NCES, December 2005)...

Reading to Achieve: A Governor's Guide to Adolescent Literacy - Poor readers in elementary and middle school are likely to struggle in high school and are most at risk of dropping out before graduation. This paper argues that the eight million struggling readers in grades 4-12 need extra support, that governors are uniquely positioned to raise awareness of the adolescent literacy problem in their state and provide leadership to improve literacy performance and recommends five strategies to improve adolescent literacy achievement: (1) build support for a state focus on adolescent literacy; (2) raise literacy expectations across grades and curricula; (3) encourage and support school and district literacy plans; (4) build educators’ capacity to provide adolescent literacy instruction; and (5) measure progress in adolescent literacy at the school, district and state levels. (Ilene Berman and Gina Biancarosa, National Governors Association, October 2005)...

The State of State Prekindergarten Standards in 2003 - This report examines the quality of state prekindergarten standards in language, literacy and mathematics by describing the methods and analytic tools for examining quality. (Susan B. Neuman, Kathleen Roskos, Carol Vukelich and Douglas Clements, Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement, 2003)...

Using Student Engagement to Improve Adolescent Literacy - The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act was enacted to promote significant changes in U.S. schools. This 10th Quick Key Action Guide assists educators and administrators in understanding NCLB with a specific focus on adolescent learners who are building their literacy across content areas. Examples and suggestions are included to assist education stakeholders in the consideration of reform efforts at the school, district and state levels. The guide identifies four key elements of student engagement: student confidence, teacher involvement; relevant and interesting texts; and choices of literacy activities. (North Central Regional Educational Laboratory, 2005)...

Reading First Targeted Assistance Grants Guidance - The U.S. Department of Education awards Reading First Targeted Assistance Grants, on a competitive basis, to state departments of education that demonstrate an increase in student achievement in schools and districts participating in the Reading First program. The grants are available to all state departments participating in the Reading First program that are able to show increases in student achievement over two consecutive years. A state’s eligibility begins when it has three years of student achievement data. This may include either: student data representing three years of implementation; or student data representing two years of implementation, along with baseline data from the year preceding implementation. (U.S. Department of Education, July 2005) ...

Meeting Literacy Goals Set by No Child Left Behind: A Long Uphill Road - Using state assessment and National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) data, the researchers sought an accurate nationwide picture of students’ literacy levels. This research brief reports the findings of the study, and suggests that proficiency levels on state assessments vary considerably among states, leading to large differences in outcomes and potentially misleading information for the public on students’ real levels of reading ability. The conclusion: "It is clear that simply mandating standards and assessments is not going to guarantee success;" greater attention and resources devoted to improving literacy are essential. (RAND, 2004)...

Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 Summary: U.S. Performance in Reading Literacy and Science Literacy - This summary contains results from PISA tests of 15-year olds residing in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. The U.S. average score in reading literacy was not measurably different from the OECD average in 2000 or 2003, nor was there any measurable change in the U.S. reading literacy score from 2000 to 2003. Commissioner remarks are available as well as a link to the full report. (National Center for Education Statistics, December 2004)...

Ten Myths of Reading Instruction - This 13-page paper argues that commonly accepted myths regarding reading instruction are prevalent and influential throughout the education community. The author identifies the belief that learning to read is a natural process as perhaps the most pernicious myth influencing reading instruction. What has the greatest impact on reading instruction is the quality, strength, knowledge and sophistication of the teacher, according to this report. (Sebastian Wren, Southwest Educational Development Laboratory, 2002) ...

Who Teaches Reading in Public Elementary Schools? The Assignments and Educational Preparation of Reading Teachers - This four-page issue brief examines what classifications of teachers were assigned to teach elementary school reading during the 1999-2000 school year, and these teachers’ levels of educational preparation. The teacher characteristics reported on include (1) “work-role assignment” (whether the instructor is regular full or part time, itinerant teacher, etc.); (2) classroom setting (i.e., self-contained class, “pull-out” class); (3) educational attainment (bachelor’s, master’s or higher than master’s); (4) educational preparation and certification in reading (major, minor, certification or major and certification); and (5) educational preparation and certification in elementary education. Data are disaggregated for reading specialists, “other reading teacher” (teaching at least one reading class but not main assignment) and general elementary education teachers. (David Meyer and Daniel J. McGrath, National Center for Education Statistics, August 2004)...

The Invisible Dyslexics: How Public School Systems in Baltimore and Elsewhere Discriminate Against Poor Children in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Early Reading Difficulties - According to this report, at least 20% of the children in Baltimore City public schools and other large urban districts can be called "invisible dyslexics," children whose problems in learning to read are either diagnosed too late and treated too little, or not diagnosed or treated at all. This report recommends specific steps to remedy this including providing more teacher training in reading and providing summer school for at-risk students after pre-kindergarten and kindergarten. (Kalman R. Hettleman, The Abell Foundation, February 2003)...

Effective Reading Programs For English Language Learners - Identifying the most effective method to teach English language-learner students reading skills is a controversial issue, with two solutions dominating the debate: bilingual education and immersion. This report argues that some empirical evidence suggests, in the small number of existing high-quality studies, that bilingual programs – especially paired bilingual strategies that teach reading in the native language and English at the same time – produce superior results when compared to immersion programs. The authors also contend that more high-quality long-term research is necessary before a definitive answer can be found. Overall conclusions begin on page 40. (Robert E. Slavin and Alan Cheung, Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk, December 2003)...

Guidance for the Reading First Program - This guidance provides information on the purpose, eligibility and application process and requirements for the Reading First Program. In addition, the document discusses components of and implementation of effective reading programs. (U.S. Department of Education, April 2002) ...

School Readiness Skills MS Word - This table illustrates the percentage of 3- to 5-year-old children not yet enrolled in kindergarten who have specific school readiness skills. The survey measured proficiency in such skills as recognizing all letters, counting to 20, ability to write name and the ability to read a storybook. (U.S. Department of Education, NCES, 2001)...

Improving Reading Outcomes: Getting Beyond Third Grade MS Word - This article, from a series of papers on Promoting Educational Excellence in the New Economy: The Challenges for National Policy, reviews what researchers know about learning to read. The author makes recommendations for continued improvement in early literacy development, as well as areas of research that need further attention. (Catherine E. Snow, The Aspen Institute, 2001)...

How Young Children Learn to Read in High/Scope Programs - This set of position papers explains how young children learn to read and write in High/Scope’s infant-toddler, preschool and early elementary programs. The debate centers around the most effective way to establish a foundation for literacy at an early age. Papers for each developmental level describe how children acquire closely related and complementary literacy skills, and list the strategies High/Scope-trained teachers and caregivers use, in partnership with parents, to support reading and writing development in their programs and at home. The papers also cite scientific research proving that the High/Scope approach works and answer questions frequently asked by educators, families and policymakers. (High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, 2001)...

Reading for Understanding: Towards an R&D Program in Reading Comprehension - With a considerable body of research on how children acquire basic reading skills already established, more attention needs to be directed toward building a sustained and systematic study of reading comprehension, a panel of experts concludes. The report from a reading study group assembled by the RAND Corporation suggests that research on how children develop skills in reading and understanding many types of texts will be one of the most urgent needs for reading researchers and teachers over the next 10-15 years. The report outlines a plan for finding out which curriculum and instructional practices best promote comprehension skills, as well as effective ways to assess those skills. The report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Educational Research and Improvement. (Catherine Snow, RAND Corporation, 2002)...

Private Options to Help Students Read - Private reading and tutoring programs like Sylvan Learning Centers and Kaplan Educational Services outperform traditional special education programs, according to this new report. The report ties the positive results of private programs to several factors, including higher levels of parent involvement, ongoing individual diagnostic assessment, low teacher-student ratios and innovative reward programs for student performance. (Lisa Snell, Reason Public Policy Institute, December 2000)...

Every Child Reading: A Professional Development Guide - The Learning First Alliance, a coalition of twelve education organizations, describes the essentials of successful professional development in reading and calls on state and national leaders to make this type of teacher training a goal. The guide promotes a "radical departure" from the one-session, publisher-funded workshops and underscores the importance of schoolwide responses to professional development, in which teachers are given the time and ongoing opportunities to review, reflect and practice well-proven strategies to help every child read. (Learning First Alliance, November 2000) ...

1999 NRP (National Reading Panel) Progress Report - In 1997, the U.S. Congress created the National Reading Panel and charged them to determine, from existing research, the most effective approaches for teaching children how to read, with the hope that these findings might influence teaching in the classroom and home. This progress report summarizes the findings from five regional meetings designed to understand how reading instruction is perceived by those who work with children, as well as to discuss the validity and reliability of reading research. The report also identifies the panel's next focus areas, including: defining literacy, what and how to teach, classroom readiness and school issues related to reading. (National Reading Panel, February 1999)...

Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children - The National Research Council's Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children examined a broad base of research on reading development; risk factors that lead to reading difficulties; and prevention, intervention and instructional strategies to ensure strong reading performance. In addition, the book provides a series of recommendations to improve reading performance and instruction for all students, with a particular focus on children at risk of learning to read. The committee also published Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children's Reading Success in 1999, which provides specific recommendations from researchers on how to help children become successful readers. Both publications can be found on the NRC Web site (National Research Council, March 1998)....

Teaching All Children to Read - Discusses six key areas that must be addressed to teach all children to read, including early assessment, classroom reading instruction, early intervention, intervention for older children, teacher education and professional development. In addition, the article provides examples of state policies on these topics from the Southern region. (David R. Denton, Southern Regional Education Board, January 2000)...

The Longitudinal Evaluation of School Change and Performance in Title I Schools - This study measures changes in student performance in reading and math for a sample of Title I schools, and takes a special look at those students with initially low achievement. The study also surveys teachers about the curriculum and instruction methods they offer and how classroom practices impact low-achieving students. Some relationships were found between 4th-grade teachers' survey responses and their students' growth in reading, especially with regard to the frequency and rigor of instructional activities, the teachers' own level of preparation in several instructional techniques and the way families prepared their students for learning. (U.S. Department of Education, July 1999)...

Chicago Elementary Schools with a Seven-Year Trend of Improved Reading Achievement: What Makes These Schools Stand Out MS Word - Researchers have found that elementary schools with substantial, sustained improvement in reading have certain common characteristics, compared to lower-achieving schools. (Reprinted with permission from Designs for Change, July 1, 1998)...


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