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Research Reviewed for This Report

Abernathy, T.V., Forsyth, A., and Mitchell, J. (2001). "The Bridge from Student to Teacher: What Principals, Teacher Education Faculty and Students Value in a Teaching Applicant." Teacher Education Quarterly, 28 (4), 109-119.

Adams, G.J. (1996). "Using a Cox Regression Model To Examine Voluntary Teacher Turnover." Journal of Experimental Education, 64 (3), 267-285.

Allred, W.E., and Smith, R.B. (1984). "Profile of Utah Teachers Leaving the Teaching Profession." Rural Educator, 5 (3), 2-5.

Andrew, M.D. (1983). "The Characteristics of Students in a Five Year Teacher Education Program." Journal of Teacher Education, 34 (1), 20-23.

Andrew, M.D., and Schwab, R.L. (1995). "Has Reform in Teacher Education Influenced Teacher Performance? An Outcome Assessment of Graduates of an Eleven-University Consortium." Action in Teacher Education, 17 (3), 43-53.

Applegate, J.H., and Shaklee, B. (1988). "Some Observations about Recruiting Bright Students for Teacher Preparation." Peabody Journal of Education, 65 (2), 52-65.

Arnold, C.L., Choy, S.P., and Bobbitt, S.A. (1993). Modeling Teacher Supply and Demand, with Commentary. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Ballou, D. (1996). "Do Public Schools Hire the Best Applicants?" Quarterly Journal of Economics, 111 (1), 97-133.

Ballou, D., and Podgursky, M. (1997). Teacher Pay and Teacher Quality . Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute.

Ballou, D., and Podgursky, M. (1998). "Teacher Recruitment and Retention in Public and Private Schools." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 17 (3), 393-417.

Beaudin, B.Q. (1993). "Teachers Who Interrupt Their Careers: Characteristics of Those Who Return to the Classroom." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 15 (1), 51-64.

Beaudin, B.Q. (1995). "Former Teachers Who Return To Public Schools: District and Teacher Characteristics of Teachers Who Return To the Districts They Left." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 17 , 462-475.

Berry, B. (1986). "Why Bright College Students Won't Teach." Urban Review, 18 (4), 269-280.

Berry, B., Noblit, G.W., and Hare, R.D. (1985). "A Qualitative Critique of Teacher Labor Market Studies." Urban Review, 17 (2), 98-110.

Boe, E.E., Bobbitt, S.A., Cook, L., Whitener, S.D., and Weber, A.L. (1997). "Why Didst Thou Go? Predictors of Retention, Transfer, and Attrition of Special and General Education Teachers from a National Perspective." The Journal of Special Education, 30, 390-411.

Brewer, D.J. (1996). "Career Paths and Quit Decisions: Evidence from Teaching." Journal of Labor Economics, 14 (2), 313-339.

Broughman, S.P. and Rollefson, M.R. (2000). "Teacher Supply in the United States: Sources of Newly Hired Teachers in Public and Private Schools: 1987-88 to 1993-94." Education Statistics Quarterly, 2 (3), 28-32.

Carroll, S., Reichardt, R., and Guarino, C., assisted by Mejia, A. (2000). The Distribution of Teachers Among California's School Districts and Schools (MR-1298.0-JIF). Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

Carter, M., and Carter, C.M. (2000). "How Principals Can Attract Teachers to the Middle Grades." Schools in the Middle, 9 (8), 22-25.

Case, C.W., Shive, R.J., Ingebretson, K., and Spiegel, V.M. (1988). "Minority Teacher Education: Recruitment and Retention Methods." Journal of Teacher Education, 33 (4), 54-57.

Chapman, D.W., and Hutcheson, S.M. (1982). "Attrition from Teaching Careers: A Discriminant Analysis." American Educational Research Journal, 19 (1), 93-105.

Clewell, B.C., and Villegas, A.M. (2001). Evaluation of the DeWitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund's Pathways to Teaching Careers Program . Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.

Davis, B.H., Higdon, K.A., Resta, V.K., and Latiolais, L.L. (2001). "Teacher Fellows: A Graduate Program for Beginning Teachers." Action in Teacher Education, 23 (2), 43-49.

DeLong, T.J. (1987). "Teachers and Their Careers: Why Do They Choose Teaching?" Journal of Career Development, 14 (2), 118-125.

Dometrius, N.C., and Sigelman, L. (1988). "The Cost of Quality: Teacher Testing and Racial-Ethnic Representativeness in Public Education." Social Science Quarterly , 69 (1), 70-82.

Dworkin, A.G. (1980). "The Changing Demography of Public School Teachers: Some Implications for Faculty Turnover in Urban Areas." Sociology of Education, 53 (2), 65-73.

Evans, R.H. (1987). "Factors Which Deter Potential Science/Math Teachers from Teaching: Changes Necessary To Ameliorate Their Concerns." Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 24 (1), 77-85.

Farkas, S., Johnson, J., and Foleno, T. (2000). A Sense of Calling: Who Teaches and Why . New York: Public Agenda.

Figlio, D.N. (2002). "Can Public Schools Buy Better-Qualified Teachers?" Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 55 (4), 686-697.

Flyer, F., and Rosen, S. (1997). "The New Economics of Teachers and Education." Journal of Labor Economics, 15 (1), S104-S139.

Galchus, K.E. (1994). "An Analysis of the Factors Affecting the Supply and Demand for Teacher Quality." Journal of Economics and Finance, 18 (2), 165-178.

Gitomer, D.H., Latham, A.S., and Ziomek, R. (1999). The Academic Quality of Prospective Teachers: The Impact of Admissions and Licensure Testing . Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Gordon, J.A. (1994). "Why Students of Color Are Not Entering Teaching: Reflections from Minority Teachers." Journal of Teacher Education, 45, 346-353.

Grissmer, D.W., and Kirby, S.N. (1992). Patterns of Attrition Among Indiana Teachers: 1965-87 (R-4076-LE). Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

Grissmer, D.W., and Kirby, S.N. (1997). "Teacher Turnover and Teacher Quality." Teachers College Record, 99 (1), 45-56.

Gritz, R.M., and Theobald, N.D. (1996). "The Effects of School District Spending Priorities on Length of Stay in Teaching." Journal of Human Resources, 31 (3), 477-512.

Hall, B.W., Pearson, L.C., and Carroll, D. (1992). "Teachers' Long-Range Teaching Plans: A Discriminant Analysis." Journal of Educational Research, 85 (4), 221-225.

Hanushek, E.A. and Pace, R.R. (1995). "Who Chooses To Teach (and Why)?" Economics of Education Review, 14 (2), 101-117.

Hanushek, E.A., Kain, J.F., and Rivkin, S.G. (2004, Spring). "Why Public Schools Lose Teachers." Journal of Human Resources, 39 (2), 326-354.

Harris, D.N., and Adams, S. (2004, Forthcoming). Putting Teacher Labor Markets in Context: A Comparison of Turnover Across Professions and Industries. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute.

Henke, R.R., Chen, X., and Geis, S. (2000). Progress Through the Teacher Pipeline: 1992-93 College Graduates and Elementary/Secondary Teaching as of 1997. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Henke, R.R., Zahn, L., and Carroll, C.D. (2001). Attrition of New Teachers Among Recent College Graduates: Comparing Occupational Stability Among 1992-93 College Graduates Who Taught and Those Who Worked in Other Occupations. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Hounshell, P.B., and Griffin, S.S. (1989). "Science Teachers Who Left: A Survey Report." Science Education, 73 (4), 433-443.

Ingersoll, R.M. (2001a). "Teacher Turnover and Teacher Shortages: An Organizational Analysis." American Educational Research Journal, 38 (3), 499-534.

Ingersoll, R.M. (2001b). Teacher Turnover, Teacher Shortages and the Organization of Schools. Washington, DC: Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy.

Ingersoll, R.M. and Alsalam, N. (1997). Teacher Professionalization and Teacher Commitment: A Multilevel Analysis (NCES 97-069). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Jacobson, S.L. (1988). "The Distribution of Salary Increments and Its Effect on Teacher Retention." Educational Administration Quarterly, 24 (2), 178-199.

Johnson, S.M., and Birkeland, S.E. (2003). "Pursuing a 'Sense of Success': New Teachers Explain Their Career Decisions." American Educational Research Association, 40 (3), 581-617.

King, S.H. (1993). "Why Did We Choose Teaching Careers and What Will Enable Us To Stay? Insights from One Cohort of the African American Teaching Pool." Journal of Negro Education, 62 (4), 475-492.

Kirby, S.N., Berends, M., and Naftel, S. (1999). "Supply and Demand of Minority Teachers in Texas: Problems and Prospects." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 21 (1), 47-66.

Kirby, S.N., Darling-Hammond, L., and Hudson, L. (1989). "Nontraditional Recruits to Mathematics and Science Teaching." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 11 (3), 301-323.

Kirby, S.N., Grissmer, D., and Hudson, L. (1991). "Sources of Teacher Supply: Some New Evidence from Indiana." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 13 (3), 256-268.

Lankford, H., Loeb, S., and Wyckoff, J. (2002). "Teacher Sorting and the Plight of Urban Schools. A Descriptive Analysis." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis , 24 (1), 37-62.

Loeb, S., and Page, M.E. (2000). "Examining the Link Between Teacher Wages and Student Outcomes: The Importance of Alternative Labor Market Opportunities and Non-Pecuniary Variation." The Review of Economics and Statistics, 82 (3), 393-408.

Manski, C.F. (1987). "Academic Ability, Earnings, and the Decision To Become a Teacher: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972." In D.A. Wise (Ed.), Public Sector Payrolls. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Marso, R.N., and Pigge, F.L. (1997). "A Longitudinal Study of Persisting and Nonpersisting Teachers' Academic and Personal Characteristics." The Journal of Experimental Education, 65, 243-254.

Miech, R.A., and Elder, G.H., Jr. (1996). "The Service Ethic and Teaching." Sociology of Education, 69 , 237-253.

Mont, D., and Rees, D.I. (1996). "The Influence of Classroom Characteristics on High School Teacher Turnover." Economic Inquiry, 34 (1), 152-167.

Murnane, R.J. (1984). "Selection and Survival in the Teacher Labor Market." The Review of Economics and Statistics, 66 , 513-518.

Murnane, R.J., and Olsen, R.J. (1989a). "The Effects of Salaries and Opportunity Costs on Duration in Teaching: Evidence from Michigan." Review of Economics and Statistics, 71 (2), 347-352.

Murnane, R.J., and Olsen, R.J. (1989b). "Will There Be Enough Teachers?" The American Economic Review, 79, 242-246.

Murnane, R.J., and Olsen, R.J. (1990). "The Effect of Salaries and Opportunity Costs on Length of Stay in Teaching: Evidence from North Carolina." The Journal of Human Resources, 25 (1), 106-124.

Murnane, R.J., and Schwinden, M. (1989). "Race, Gender and Opportunity: Supply and Demand for New Teachers in North Carolina, 1975-1985." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 11 (2), 93-108.

Murnane, R.J., Singer, J.D., and Willett, J.B. (1989). "The Influences of Salaries and 'Opportunity Costs' on Teachers' Career Choices: Evidence from North Carolina." Harvard Educational Review, 59 (3), 325-346.

Murnane, R.J., Singer, J.D., Willett, J.B., Kemple, J.J., and Olsen, R.J. (1991). Who Will Teach? Policies that Matter. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Natriello, G., and Zumwalt, K. (1993). "New Teachers for Urban Schools? The Contribution of the Provisional Teacher Program in New Jersey." Education and Urban Society, 26 (1), 49-62.

Odell, S.J., and Ferraro, D.P. (1992). "Teacher Mentoring and Teacher Retention." Journal of Teacher Education, 43 (3), 200-204.

Pigge, F.L. (1985). "Teacher Education Graduates: Comparisons of Those Who Teach and Do Not Teach." Journal of Teacher Education, 36 (4), 27-28.

Pigge, F.L., and Marso, R.N. (1992). "A Longitudinal Comparison of the Academic, Affective, and Personal Characteristics of Persisters and Nonpersisters in Teacher Preparation." Journal of Experimental Education, 61 (1), 19-26.

Raymond, M., Fletcher, S.H., and Luque, J. (2001, August). Teach for America: An Evaluation of Teacher Differences and Student Outcomes in Houston, Texas. Unpublished manuscript. Stanford, CA: CREDO, Hoover Institution.

Reed, D.F., and Busby, D.W. (1985). "Teacher Incentives in Rural Schools." Research in Rural Education, 3 (2), 69-73.

Rees, D.I. (1991). "Grievance Procedure Strength and Teacher Quits." Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 45 (1), 31-43.

Rickman, B.D., and Parker, C.D. (1990). "Alternative Wages and Teacher Mobility: A Human Capital Approach." Economics of Education Review, 9 (1), 73-79.

Rong, X.L., and Preissle, J. (1997). "The Continuing Decline in Asian American Teachers." American Educational Research Journal, 34 (2), 267-293.

Rumberger, R.W. (1987). "The Impact of Salary Differentials on Teacher Shortages and Turnover: The Case of Mathematics and Science Teachers." Economics of Education Review, 6 (4), 389-399.

Schlechty, P.C., and Vance, V.S. (1981). "Do Academically Able Teachers Leave Education? The North Carolina Case." Phi Delta Kappan, 63 (2), 106-112.

Seyfarth, J.T., and Bost, W.A. (1986). "Teacher Turnover and the Quality of Worklife in Schools: An Empirical Study." Journal of Research and Development in Education, 20 (1), 1-6.

Shen, J. (1997). "Teacher Retention and Attrition in Public Schools: Evidence from SASS91." Journal of Educational Research, 91 (2), 81-88.

Shin, H.S. (1995). "Estimating Future Teacher Supply: Any Policy Implications for Educational Reform?" International Journal of Educational Reform, 4 (4), 422-433.

Shipp, V.H. (1999). "Factors Influencing the Career Choices of African American Collegians: Implications for Minority Teacher Recruitment." Journal of Negro Education, 68 (3), 343-351.

Singer, J.D. and Willett, J.B. (1988). "Detecting Involuntary Layoffs in Teacher Survival Data: The Year of Leaving Dangerously." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 10 , 212-224.

Stinebrickner, T.R. (1998). "An Empirical Investigation of Teacher Attrition." Economics of Education Review, 17 (2), 127-136.

Stinebrickner, T.R. (1999). "Estimation of a Duration Model in the Presence of Missing Data." Review of Economics and Statistics, 81 (3), 529-542.

Stinebrickner, T.R. (2001a). "A Dynamic Model of Teacher Labor Supply." Journal of Labor Economics, 19 (1), 196-230.

Stinebrickner, T.R. (2001b). "Compensation Policies and Teacher Decisions." International Economic Review, 42 (3), 751-779.

Stinebrickner, T.R. (2002). "An Analysis of Occupational Change and Departure from the Labor Force. Evidence of the Reasons that Teachers Leave." Journal of Human Resources, 37 (1), 192-216.

Stoddart, T. (1990). "Los Angeles Unified School District Intern Program: Recruiting and Preparing Teachers for an Urban Context." Peabody Journal of Education, 67, 84-122.

Theobald, N.D. (1990). "An Examination of the Influence of Personal, Professional and School District Characteristics on Public School Teacher Retention." Economics of Education Review, 9 (3), 241-250.

Villegas, A.M., and Clewell, B.C. (1998). "Increasing the Number of Teachers of Color for Urban Schools: Lessons from the Pathways National Evaluation." Education and Urban Society, 31 (1), 42-61.

Weiss, E.M. (1999). "Perceived Workplace Conditions and First-Year Teachers' Morale, Career Choice Commitment and Planned Retention: A Secondary Analysis." Teaching and Teacher Education, 15 (8), 861-879.

Wise, A.E., Darling-Hammond, L., and Berry, B. (1987). Effective Teacher Selection: from Recruitment to Retention. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

Additional References

Allen, M. (2003). Eight Question on Teacher Preparation: What Does the Research Say? Denver, CO: Education Commission of the States. http://www.ecs.org/tpreport.

American Federation of Teachers (AFT) (2003). 2003 Survey and Analysis of Teacher Salary Trends . Washington, DC: AFT. http://www.aft.org/salary/.

Ballou, D., and Podgursky, M. (1995). "Recruiting Smarter Teachers." Journal of Human Resources, 30 (2), 326-338.

Darling-Hammond, L. (1996). What Matters Most: Teaching for America's Future. Washington, DC: National Commission on Teaching and America's Future .

Darling-Hammond, L. (2000, January). "Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: A Review of State Policy Evidence." Education Policy Analysis Archives, 8 (1). http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v8n1/.

Darling-Hammond, L., Kirby, S.N. and Hudson, L. (1989). Redesigning Teacher Education: Opening the Door for New Recruits to Science and Mathematics Teaching (R-3661-FF/CSTP). Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

Ehrenberg, R.G., and Brewer, D.J. (1994). "Do School and Teacher Characteristics Matter? Evidence from High School and Beyond." Economics of Education Review, 13 (1), 1-17.

Ehrenberg, R.G., and Brewer, D.J. (1995). "Did Teachers' Verbal Ability and Race Matter in the 1960s? Coleman Revisited." Economics of Education Review, 14 (1), 1-21.

Ehrenberg, R.G., Goldhaber, D.D., and Brewer, D.J. (1995). "Do Teachers' Race, Gender and Ethnicity Matter? Evidence from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988." Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 48 (3), 547-561.

Ferguson, R.F. (1991). "Paying for Public Education: New Evidence on How and Why Money Matters." Harvard Journal on Legislation 28, 465-498.

Ferguson, R.F. (1998). "Can schools narrow the black-white test score gap?" In C. Jencks and M. Phillips (Eds.), The Black-White Test Score Gap . Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 318-374.

Fetler, M. (1999). High School Characteristics and Mathematics Test Results. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 7 (9).

Glennie, E., Coble, C.R. and Allen, M. (2004, November). Teacher Perceptions of the Work Environment in Hard-to-Staff Schools. Denver, CO: Education Commission of the States. http://www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/55/87/5587.doc.

Goldhaber, D.D., and Brewer, D.J. (2000). "Does Teacher Certification Matter? High School Teacher Certification Status and Student Achievement." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 22 (2), 129-145.

Goldhaber, D.D., Brewer, D.J. and Anderson, D.J. (1999). "A Three-Way Error Components Analysis of Educational Productivity." Education Economics, 7 (3), 199-208.

Hanushek, E.A. (1992). "The Trade-Off between Child Quantity and Quality." Journal of Political Economy, 100 (1), 84-117.

Hawk, P., Coble, C., and Swanson, M. (1985). "Certification: It Does Matter." Journal of Teacher Education, 36 (3), 13-15.

Haynes, D. (2005, April 5). "25% of City Teachers Short on Credentials, Janey Says." Washington Post .

Ingersoll, R.M. (1999). "The Problem of Underqualified Teachers in American Secondary Schools." Educational Researcher, 28 (2), 26-37.

Ingersoll, R., and Kralik, J.M. (2004). The Impact of Mentoring on Teacher Retention: What the Research Says . Denver, CO: Education Commission of the States.

Lankford, H., Loeb, S., and Wyckoff, J. (2002). "Teacher Sorting and the Plight of Urban Schools: A Descriptive Analysis." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 24 (1), 37-62.

Latham, A.S., Gitomer, D.H., and Ziomek, R. (1999). "What the Tests Tell Us about new Teachers." Educational Leadership, 56 (8), 23-26.

Levin, H.M. (1985). "Solving the Shortage of Mathematics and Science Teachers." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 7, 371-382.

Levin, J., and Quinn, M. (2003). Missed Opportunities: How We Keep High-Quality Teachers Out of Urban Schools. The New Teacher Project.

Loeb, S., and Reininger, M. (2004). Public Policy and Teacher Labor Markets: What We Know and Why It Matters. East Lansing, MI: The Education Policy Center at Michigan State University.

Mayer, D.P., Mullens, J.E., and Moore, M.T. (2000). Monitoring School Quality: An Indicators Report (NCES 2001-303). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Mitchell, N., and Hubbard, B. (2004, December 24). "Districts Face Revolving Door: One in Five Teachers Changes Schools Each Year in State." Rocky Mountain News .

Murnane, R.J., and Phillips, B.R. (1981). "What Do Effective Teachers of Inner-City Children Have in Common?" Social Science Research, 10 , 83-100.

Monk, D.H. (1994). "Subject Area Preparation of Secondary Mathematics and Science Teachers and Student Achievement." Economics of Education Review, 13 (2), 125-145.

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Rumberger, R.W. (1985). "The Shortage of Mathematics and Science Teachers: A Review of the Evidence." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 7 (4), 355-369.

Sanders, W., and Rivers, J. (1996). Cumulative and Residual Effects of Teachers on Future Student Academic Achievement . Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee, Value-Added Research and Assessment Center.

Smith, T.M., and Ingersoll, R.M. (2004, Summer). "What Are the Effects of Induction and Mentoring on Beginning Teacher Turnover?" American Educational Research Journal, 41 (2).

Strong, M. (2005). Induction, Mentoring and Teacher Retention: A Summary of the Research (unpublished) . Santa Cruz, CA: New Teacher Center.

Wilson, S.M., and Floden, R.E. (2002.) Creating Effective Teachers - Concise Answers for Hard Questions (An Addendum to the Report Teacher Preparation Research: Current Knowledge, Gaps and Recommendations). Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Teaching and Teacher Education.

Wright, S.P., Horn, S.P., and Sanders, W.L. (1997). "Teacher and Classroom Context Effects on Student Achievement: Implications for Teacher Evaluation." Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 11 , 57-67.

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