1. Provide state guidance. The U.S. Department of Education could document and provide information about reported best practices for survey implementation and interpretation. The department could also disseminate validation studies and encourage empirical validation of all states' practices.
2. Ensure transparency in the efforts of the Office for Civil Rights. The U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights (OCR) has given confusing guidance about state interpretation of educational laws. The authors recommend that OCR do a better job at documenting the guidance they have given to individual states and to consider greater coordination across regional sites and states to help ensure the equitable interpretation of federal law.
2. Validate survey instruments or require validation.
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