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Comparing Estimates of Teacher Value-Added Based on Criterion- and Norm-Referenced Tests

Issue/Topic: Teaching Quality--Evaluation and Effectiveness
Author(s): Stuit, David; Gerdeman, R.; Austin, Megan; Berends, Mark
Organization(s): Institute of Education Sciences; REL Midwest
Publication: REL Midwest
Published On: 1/1/2014

Background:
Recent changes to state laws on accountability have prompted school districts to design teacher performance evaluation systems that incorporate student achievement (growth) as a major component. Some states and districts are considering teacher value-added models as part of teacher evaluations.

Purpose:
This study aimed to provide new information on the degree to which value-added estimates of teachers differ by the assessment used to measure their students' achievement growth.

Findings/Results:
  • Single-year estimates from the state assessment (ISTEP+) and norm-referenced test (MAP) were moderately correlated (correlation coefficients of 0.44 to 0.65).

  • On average, 33.3 percent of estimates ranked in the same quintile on both tests in the same school year.

  • No teachers had estimates above the sample average with 95 percent confidence on one test and below the sample average with 95 percent confidence on the other test.

Policy Implications/Recommendations:
  • Designers of performance evaluation systems need to understand the factors that can affect the validity and reliability of value-added results or other measures based on student assessment data used to evaluate teacher performance.

  • Policymakers need to consider measurement error when interpreting estimates of teacher value-added, particularly single-year estimates.

  • Incorporating confidence intervals for value-added estimates reduces the likelihood that teachers' performance will be misclassified based on measurement error.

  • Other research has shown that averaging estimates of teacher value-added over multiple years will increase precision and provide more reliable information on teacher performance.

Research Design:
Comparison of teacher value-added based on districts that administered the criterion-referenced Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress Plus (ISTEP+) and the norm-referenced Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) in the same school year. The analysis examines reading and math achievement data.

Population/Participants/Subjects:
Students and their reading and math teachers in grades 4 and 5 in 46 Indiana schools in 10 Indiana districts

Year data is from:
2005-06 to 2010-11

Setting:
State

Data Collection and Analysis:
The study used three analytic strategies to quantify similarities and differences in estimates of teacher value-added from ISTEP+ and MAP: correlations of value-added estimates based on the two assessments, comparisons of the quintile rankings of value-added estimates of the two assessments, and comparisons of the classifications of value-added estimates on the two assessments according to whether their 95 percent confidence intervals were above, below or overlapping the sample average.

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