Note: All U.S. Department of Education data on 4th- and 8th-grade students are for public school students.

Select from this list to go to the notes and sources for each area:


STEM DEMAND

STEM jobs are growing fast

SOURCE: Economic Modeling Specialists International, April 2017.

NOTE: The definition of STEM occupations includes Computer and Mathematical occupations, Architecture and Engineering occupations, Life and Physical Science occupations, three Management occupations in STEM fields (Computer and Systems Information managers, Architectural and Engineering managers, and Natural Science managers), and select Healthcare Practitioner and Technical occupations:

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SOC Code Census Code
Management Occupations
Computer and Information Systems Managers 11-3021 0110
Architectural and Engineering Managers 11-9041 1300
Natural Sciences Managers 11-9121 0360
Computer and Mathematical Occupations
All Computer and Mathematical Occupations 15-1111 through 15-2099 1005 through 1240
Architecture and Engineering Occupations
All Architecture and Engineering Occupations 17-1010 through 17-3031 1300 through 1560
Life and Physical Science Occupations
All Life and Physical Science Occupations 19-1010 through 19-2099; 19-4011 through 19-4090 1600 through 1760; 1900 through 1965
Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations
Chiropractors 29-1011 3000
Dentists 29-1020 3010
Dietitians and nutritionists 29-1031 3030
Optometrists 29-1041 3040
Pharmacists 29-1051 3050
Physicians and surgeons 29-1060 3060
Physician assistants 29-1071 3110
Podiatrists 29-1081 3120
Audiologists 29-1181 3140
Occupational therapists 29-1122 3150
Physical therapists 29-1123 3160
Radiation therapists 29-1124 3200
Respiratory therapists 29-1126 3220
Veterinarians 29-1131 3250
Registered nurses 29-1141 3255
Nurse practitioners 29-1171 3258
Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 29-2010 3300
Diagnostic related technologists and technicians 29-2030 3320
Health practitioner support technologists and technicians 29-2050 3420
Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses 29-2061 3500
Opticians, dispensing 29-2081 3520
Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations 29-9000 3540
STEM earnings are high

SOURCE: Economic Modeling Specialists International, May 2017.

STEM unemployment is low

SOURCE: U.S. Census Department, 2017. Results are for the 3-year period from July 2014 through July 2017.

Unemployment rates for STEM vs. Non-STEM careers were compared using Current Population Survey (CPS) data for July 2014 through July 2017, which are the most recent 3 years of CPS data available. When rates were calculated, individuals were weighted using the variable “pwcmpwgt” described below.

The individual monthly CPS-B (Basic) data files were retrieved from the Census CPS data download page at https://thedataweb.rm.census.gov/ftp/cps_ftp.html. Programs to read these data into various software packages are made available from the National Bureau of Economic Research at http://www.nber.org/data/cps_progs.html. Programs to import the 2017 files had not been published at the time of our analysis, so SAS code was created to import these files using the data dictionary published along with the data on the Census website.

The standard, full monthly CPSB labor force universe files were used without modification or additional subsetting, as is consistent with official reporting methods for the CPS employment statistics. More information about the survey can be obtained from the Census website: https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/cps/about.html.

Employment was based on the monthly labor force flag (“pemlr”) where employment is defined as pemlr = 1 or 2, while unemployment is defined as pemlr = 3 or 4. State and federal rates were weighted using the Composited Final Weight (“pwcmpwgt”), and states were identified using the variable “gestfips”.

The occupational codes used came from the primary occupation code variable (“peio1ocd”).

The definition of STEM jobs comprises the following Census occupation codes (peio1ocd): 110, 300, 360, 1000 -1240, 1300 -1560, 1600 -1760, 1900 -1965, 3000 -3200, 3220, 3250, 3255, 3258, 3300, 3320, 3420, 3500, 3520, 3540. These codes correspond to the definition of STEM jobs described in the above section.

Yet supplies of talent are limited

What percentage of high school students graduate?

SOURCE: U. S. Department of Education, Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate by nation and state, All Students: 2015-16, Provisional Data File. Custom table retrieved 3/17/2017 from http://eddataexpress.ed.gov/state-tables-main.cfm.

Of the high school graduates who enter 4-year degree programs, what percentage graduate?

SOURCE: The Chronicle of Higher Education, College Completion: Who Graduates from College, Who Doesn’t and Why it Matters. Analysis of data tables drawn from the National Center for Education Statistics Integrated Post-Secondary Education Data System. For more information on the data, see http://collegecompletion.chronicle.com/about#download.

Of the high school graduates who enter 2-year degree programs, what percentage graduate?

SOURCE: The Chronicle of Higher Education, College Completion.

What percentage of certificates and degrees is in STEM fields?

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education. Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Fall 2001 through Fall 2015 Completions component; U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Immigration and Customs Enforcement, STEM Designated Degree Programs; U.S. Department of Education. Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, CIP Code Crosswalk Search between CIP 1990 and CIP 2000, retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2002/cip2000/index.asp; U.S. Department of Education. Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, CIP Code Crosswalk Search between CIP 2000 and CIP 2010, retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/cipcode/crosswalk.aspx?y=55.

NOTE: Awards conferred include both degrees and certificates. STEM fields include computer and information sciences, engineering and engineering technologies, biological and biomedical sciences, mathematics and statistics, physical sciences, and science technologies. The also include most instructional programs in healthcare. To determine which courses of study to include, CTEq identified the Department of Education’s Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) codes that most closely align with the SOC codes included in CTEq’s definition of STEM occupations.

K-12 ACHIEVEMENT

Progress in 4th- and 8th- grade math

Trends in 4th Grade Math Scores, 2003-2015

Trends in 8th Grade Math Scores, 2003-2015

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2003-2015 Mathematics Assessments.

Other states have made progress

Changes in 4th Grade Math Scores, 2003-2015

Changes in 8th Grade Math Scores, 2003-2015

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2003-2015 Mathematics Assessments.

Many high school students are not ready for college

Average ACT Scores in Math, 2017

Average ACT Scores in Science, 2017

SOURCE: American College Testing (ACT). Condition of College and Career Readiness, 2017, National and State Reports, retrieved 9/22/2017 from http://www.act.org/content/act/en/research/condition-of-college-and-career-readiness-2017.html.

DIVERSITY

Low-income and minority children lag behind

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2015 Mathematics Assessments, 2015 8th-grade science assessment, 2015 4th-grade science assessment.

People of color earning STEM degrees

SOURCES:

Data on degrees and certificates: U.S. Department of Education. Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Fall 2001 through Fall 2015 Completions component; U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Immigration and Customs Enforcement, STEM Designated Degree Programs. Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, CIP Code Crosswalk Search between CIP 1990 and CIP 2000, retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2002/cip2000/index.asp; U.S. Department of Education. Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, CIP Code Crosswalk Search between CIP 2000 and CIP 2010, retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/cipcode/crosswalk.aspx?y=55.

Data on the college-age population: Economic Modeling Specialists International, 2016.

NOTE: For this analysis, the “college-aged population” includes ages 20-29. We estimate that most people earning certificates through advanced degrees fall into that age range.

Women lag behind in STEM degrees

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education. Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), fall 2001 through Fall 2015.

STEM CONTENT

Time for science in elementary school

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2015 Fourth-Grade Science Assessment.

Make use of untapped minority talent

SOURCE: Derived from data provided by the College Board. Copyright © 2006-2014, The College Board. www.collegeboard.org.

Access to advanced classes

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights Civil Rights Data Collection, 2013-2014.

Help high school students succeed in advanced classes

SOURCE: Derived from data provided by the College Board. Copyright © 2006-2015, The College Board. www.collegeboard.org.

Give students more hands-on science experiences

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2015 Eighth-Grade Science Assessment.

Give more students early exposure to engineering

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2015 Eighth-Grade Science Assessment.

TEACHERS

Boost teachers’ knowledge of math and science

8th Graders whose teachers have an undergraduate major in math, 2015

8th graders whose math teachers have 5+ years of experience teaching math, 2015

4th graders whose teachers have an undergraduate major in math, 2015

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2015 Mathematics Assessments.

NOTE: Majors in math and science education are not counted.

4th graders whose teachers have an undergraduate major in science , 2005

8th graders whose teachers have an undergraduate major in science, 2015

8th graders whose teachers took three or more advanced science courses, 2015

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2015 Fourth-Grade Science Assessment; 2015 Eighth-Grade Science Assessment.

NOTE: Majors in math and science education are not counted.

Retain and support excellent teachers

8th graders whose math teachers have 5+ years of elementary or secondary teaching experience, 2015

8th graders whose science teachers have 5+ years of elementary or secondary teaching experience, 2015

8th graders whose math teachers have 5+ years of experience teaching math, 2015

8th graders whose science teachers have 5+ years teaching science, 2015

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2015 Mathematics Assessments; 2015 Science Assessments.

TEACHING TOOLS

Too many teachers lack the tools of their trade

8th Graders whose math teachers say they have all or most of the resources they need, 2015

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2015 Eighth-Grade Mathematics Assessment.

8th Graders whose science teachers say they have all or most of the resources they need, 2015

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2015 Eighth-Grade Science Assessment.

Most schools have science labs, but lab stations and supplies are less common

8th Graders whose schools have 8th Grade science labs, 2015

8th Graders whose schools report that lab stations in science labs are available “to a large extent,” 2015

8th Graders whose schools report that supplies or equipment for science labs are available “to a large extent,” 2015

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2015 Eighth-Grade Science Assessment.

Parent support and engagement are critical for student success

Percentage of 8th grade math teachers reporting that a lack of parental support is a serious problem, 2011-2012

Percentage of 8th grade science teachers reporting that a lack of parental support is a serious problem, 2011-2012

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Schools and Staffing Survey, 2011-12.


 PUBLISHED: October 1, 2017

 AUTHOR(S): Unspecified

 RESOURCE TYPE: Unspecified

 EDUCATION LEVEL:

 STATE(S): Nationwide

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